How to format your references using the Viszeralmedizin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viszeralmedizin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insel TR. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature. 2010 Nov;468(7321):187–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hodas NO, Lerman K. The simple rules of social contagion. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar;4:4343.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mabe S, Nagamune T, Kawahara M. Detecting protein-protein interactions based on kinase-mediated growth induction of mammalian cells. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6127.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, Redman CL, Wu J, Bai X, et al. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science. 2008 Feb;319(5864):756–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hens HSLC. Performance Based Building Design 2. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Wallace M, Anagnostopoulos IE, Mylonas P, Bielikova M, editors. Semantics in Adaptive and Personalized Services: Methods, Tools and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Minbashi N, Bagheri M, Golroo A, Arasteh Khouy I, Ahmadi A. Turnout Degradation Modelling Using New Inspection Technologies: A Literature Review. In: Kumar U, Ahmadi A, Verma AK, Varde P, editors. Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 49–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viszeralmedizin.

Blog post
Luntz S. Khoe-San People Have Gene Variant That Reduces Pregnancy Complications [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Aug [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Ed-Flex Program: Increase in Flexibility Useful but Limited by Scope of Waiver Authority. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft D. Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. A Rested Williams Shakes Off the Rust. New York Times. 2017 Jan;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViszeralmedizin
ISSN (print)1662-6664
ISSN (online)1662-6672

Other styles