How to format your references using the Viszeralmedizin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viszeralmedizin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGlone M: Paleontology. The hunters did it. Science 2012;335:1452–1453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bier E, De Robertis EM: EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT. BMP gradients: A paradigm for morphogen-mediated developmental patterning. Science 2015;348:aaa5838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim H-J, Lee J-H, Cho J-H: Antiferromagnetic Slater insulator phase of Na₂IrO₃. Sci Rep 2014;4:5253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nagalakshmi U, Wang Z, Waern K, Shou C, Raha D, Gerstein M, et al.: The transcriptional landscape of the yeast genome defined by RNA sequencing. Science 2008;320:1344–1349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Decreusefond L, Moyal P: Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
Moritz EF, Haake S (eds): The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 1: Developments for Sports. New York, NY, Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson D, Gurvich V, Hansen TD: On Acyclicity of Games with Cycles; in Goldberg AV, Zhou Y (eds): Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 5th International Conference, AAIM 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 15-17, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009, pp 15–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viszeralmedizin.

Blog post
Carpineti C: Scientists Claim To Have Decoded The Mona Lisa’s Famous Smile. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panteleyeva NB: Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M: Judging Draws Renewed Scrutiny. New York Times 2014;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViszeralmedizin
ISSN (print)1662-6664
ISSN (online)1662-6672

Other styles