How to format your references using the Visual Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vrakking, Marc. 2010. “Journal Club. A Physicist Discusses How to Visualize a Molecule Changing Shape.” Nature 465 (7296): 271.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bilder, D., and N. Perrimon. 2000. “Localization of Apical Epithelial Determinants by the Basolateral PDZ Protein Scribble.” Nature 403 (6770): 676–680.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Chong, Andrew C. Potter, and T. Senthil. 2014. “Classification of Interacting Electronic Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6171): 629–631.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ueda, Koji, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Ayako Tatsuguchi, Naomi Saichi, Risa Fujii, and Hidewaki Nakagawa. 2014. “Antibody-Coupled Monolithic Silica Microtips for Highthroughput Molecular Profiling of Circulating Exosomes.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, Joe. 2009. Becoming a Category of One. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Naselli-Flores, Luigi, and Giampaolo Rossetti, eds. 2010. Fifty Years after the ‘“Homage to Santa Rosalia”’: Old and New Paradigms on Biodiversity in Aquatic Ecosystems. Vol. 213. Developments in Hydrobiology 213. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chirichello, Michael. 2010. “The Principal as Educational Leader: What Makes the Difference.” In School Leadership - International Perspectives, edited by Stephan Huber, 79–100. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Studies.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Tornado-Like Winds May Have Scoured The Surface Of Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Highlights of a Forum: Transforming Transportation Policy for the 21st Century. GAO-07-1210SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams-Newball, Takieya Iesha. 2014. “Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2006. “Cider, From Doughnuts to Hot Dogs.” New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vrakking 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Vrakking 2010; Bilder and Perrimon 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bilder and Perrimon 2000)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Potter, and Senthil 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ueda et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Studies
AbbreviationVis. Stud.
ISSN (print)1472-586X
ISSN (online)1472-5878
ScopeVisual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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