How to format your references using the Visual Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krakauer, A.H., 2005. Kin selection and cooperative courtship in wild turkeys. Nature 434, 69–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andreasen, R., Sharma, M., 2009. Comment on “Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust.” Science 325, 267; author reply 267.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhou, Q., Su, X., Ning, K., 2014. Assessment of quality control approaches for metagenomic data analysis. Sci. Rep. 4, 6957.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hofstetter, L., Csonka, S., Nygård, J., Schönenberger, C., 2009. Cooper pair splitter realized in a two-quantum-dot Y-junction. Nature 461, 960–963.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Masujima, M., 2005. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Perneder, R., 2012. Handbook Timing Belts: Principles, Calculations, Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertrand, T., 2011. Lectures on DG-Categories, in: Cortiñas, G., Meyer, R., Sánchez-García, R., Schlichting, M., Toën, B. (Eds.), Topics in Algebraic and Topological K-Theory, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 243–302.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Bizarre New Virus Discovered Beneath The Ocean Floor [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Mass Transit: Federal Participation in Transit Benefit Programs (No. RCED-93-163). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bozorgchami, B., 2017. Time and Bandwidth Efficiency in Transmission of Telemedicine and In-Hospital Patient Data (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. Property Damage but No Injuries in Tornado. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krakauer, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Andreasen and Sharma, 2009; Krakauer, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Andreasen and Sharma, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Hofstetter et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Informatics
ISSN (print)2468-502X

Other styles