How to format your references using the Visual Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Visual Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, T., 2001. Essays on science and society. Toward sustainable chemistry. Science 291, 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kidder, S.Q., Vonder Haar, T.H., 2010. Atmospheric science. Observing weather from space. Science 327, 1085–1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Santra, M.K., Wajapeyee, N., Green, M.R., 2009. F-box protein FBXO31 mediates cyclin D1 degradation to induce G1 arrest after DNA damage. Nature 459, 722–725.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wertz, I.E., O’Rourke, K.M., Zhang, Z., Dornan, D., Arnott, D., Deshaies, R.J., Dixit, V.M., 2004. Human De-etiolated-1 regulates c-Jun by assembling a CUL4A ubiquitin ligase. Science 303, 1371–1374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halstead, P., 2014. Two Oxen Ahead. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Baker, C.J.O., Cheung, K.-H. (Eds.), 2007. Semantic Web: Revolutionizing Knowledge Discovery in the Life Sciences. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Ünsal, A., Karaman, C.Z., 2013. Renal Calculus Disease, in: Dogra, V.S., MacLennan, G.T. (Eds.), Genitourinary Radiology: Kidney, Bladder and Urethra: The Pathologic Basis. Springer, London, pp. 121–144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Visual Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Move Over Milky Way, Elliptical Galaxies Are The Most Habitable In The Cosmos [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1971. Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Los Angeles and Riverside Counties (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kay, K., 2013. A support group for older adult males struggling with depression: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. With Suit, Hedge Funds Seek to Freeze the Assets of a Top Puerto Rico Bank. New York Times B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Collins, 2001; Kidder and Vonder Haar, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kidder and Vonder Haar, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wertz et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleVisual Informatics
ISSN (print)2468-502X

Other styles