How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sincell M. ROBOTICS: Rescue Droids Stumble in an Urban Jungle. Science 2000;289:846a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Webb DJ, Suginohara N. Oceanography. Vertical mixing in the ocean. Nature 2001;409:37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Good SP, Noone D, Bowen G. WATER RESOURCES. Hydrologic connectivity constrains partitioning of global terrestrial water fluxes. Science 2015;349:175–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gelbard-Sagiv H, Mukamel R, Harel M et al. Internally generated reactivation of single neurons in human hippocampus during free recall. Science 2008;322:96–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagashima Y. Elementary Particle Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
Rehm G, Uszkoreit H eds. The Norwegian Language in the Digital Age: Bokmalsversjon. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Mutanda T, Ramesh D, Anandraj A et al. Sustainable Biodiesel Production Using Wastewater Streams and Microalgae in South Africa. In: Gurib-Fakim A, Eloff JN (eds.). Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Five Phenomenal Science Stunts Done With Dry Ice. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Long-Term Commitment to and Investment in Space Exploration Program Requires More Knowledge. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cope JA. Coastal squeeze of vegetation zones in the Los Cerritos Wetlands: The effect of sea level rise. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Ball That Seems Innocuous Closes Door on a Mets Rally. New York Times. July 4, 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sincell 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Sincell 2000; Webb and Suginohara 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Webb and Suginohara 2001)
  • Three authors: (Good, Noone and Bowen 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gelbard-Sagiv et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Ecology
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0168-6496
ISSN (online)1574-6941
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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