How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masood E. Expert assessments can work if lessons are learned. Nature 2012;490:145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mourou G, Tajima T. Physics. More intense, shorter pulses. Science 2011;331:41–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wurmser AE, Palmer TD, Gage FH. Neuroscience. Cellular interactions in the stem cell niche. Science 2004;304:1253–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Möller P, Madland DG, Sierk AJ et al. Nuclear fission modes and fragment mass asymmetries in a five-dimensional deformation space. Nature 2001;409:785–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene A. Keene on the Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Rodgers M, Sweeney SE eds. Nabokov and the Question of Morality: Aesthetics, Metaphysics, and the Ethics of Fiction. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmüser P, Dohlus M, Rossbach J et al. One-Dimensional Theory of the High-Gain FEL. In: Dohlus M, Rossbach J, Behrens C (eds.). Free-Electron Lasers in the Ultraviolet and X-Ray Regime: Physical Principles, Experimental Results, Technical Realization. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, 39–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Watch Live As NASA Inflates The First Expandable Room On The ISS. IFLScience 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Yolo County, California, Economic Opportunity Commission Concerning Matters Affecting Local Poverty Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck NA. Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. Michael Tilson Thomas To Step Down in 2020. New York Times. October 31, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Masood 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Mourou and Tajima 2011; Masood 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mourou and Tajima 2011)
  • Three authors: (Wurmser, Palmer and Gage 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Möller et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Ecology
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0168-6496
ISSN (online)1574-6941
ScopeEcology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Microbiology

Other styles