How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGehee MD. Applied physics. Paradigm shifts in dye-sensitized solar cells. Science 2011;334:607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Temeles EJ, Kress WJ. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association. Science 2003;300:630–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
He C, Jiang SP, Shen PK. Large-scale and rapid synthesis of disk-shaped and nano-sized graphene. Sci Rep 2013;3:2144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bertero A, Brown S, Madrigal P et al. The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency. Nature 2018;555:256–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peters M, Glasser D, Hildebrandt D et al. Membrane Process Design Using Residue Curve Maps. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Kuhad RC, Singh A eds. Biotechnology for Environmental Management and Resource Recovery. New Delhi: Springer India, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Demiryol T. Interdependence, Balancing and Conflict in Russian–Turkish Relations. In: Klieman A (ed.). Great Powers and Geopolitics: International Affairs in a Rebalancing World. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, 65–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Blog post
Fang J. Primordial Cold Spot Caused By Supervoid. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on STURA Act’s Effects on Funding for Los Angeles Metrorail System]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Childers JW. Evaluating parental opinions of healthy snack guidelines for youth soccer. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Quiet Campaigns Begin For Presidency of I.O.C. New York Times. June 8, 2013:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McGehee 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Temeles and Kress 2003; McGehee 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Temeles and Kress 2003)
  • Three authors: (He, Jiang and Shen 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bertero et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Ecology
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0168-6496
ISSN (online)1574-6941
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles