How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitch T. Journal club. A cognitive biologist foresees breakthroughs in understanding vocal learning. Nature 2010;466:163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemberger M, Pedersen R. Stem cells. Epigenome disruptors. Science 2010;330:598–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knapp S, Polaszek A, Watson M. Spreading the word. Nature 2007;446:261–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wiedemann N, Kozjak V, Chacinska A et al. Machinery for protein sorting and assembly in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Nature 2003;424:565–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bma. Everyday Medical Ethics and Law. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Vashchenko VA. ESD Design for Analog Circuits. Shibkov A (ed.). Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Janusz D, Kost M, Freytag J-C. Privacy Protocol for Linking Distributed Medical Data. In: Jonker W, Petković M (eds.). Secure Data Management: 9th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2012, Istanbul, Turkey, August 27, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012, 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

Blog post
Evans K. You’re Not Lazy, You Have A High IQ, Study Suggests. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Circumstances Surrounding the ASPJ Limited Production Decision. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tofthagen CS. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay G, Doyle M, Pethokoukis J. Planned U.S. Tax Might Hurt Europe’s Banks Less. New York Times. January 15, 2010:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitch 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fitch 2010; Hemberger and Pedersen 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hemberger and Pedersen 2010)
  • Three authors: (Knapp, Polaszek and Watson 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wiedemann et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Ecology
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0168-6496
ISSN (online)1574-6941
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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