How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grafton, Anthony. 2015. “Lisa Jardine (1944-2015).” Nature 528 (7580): 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang, M. L., and F. Yang. 2014. “Size Effect Model on Kinetics of Interfacial Reaction between Sn-XAg-YCu Solders and Cu Substrate.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7117.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elia, Andrew E. H., Lewis C. Cantley, and Michael B. Yaffe. 2003. “Proteomic Screen Finds PSer/PThr-Binding Domain Localizing Plk1 to Mitotic Substrates.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5610): 1228–1231.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Decker, R. B., S. M. Krimigis, E. C. Roelof, M. E. Hill, T. P. Armstrong, G. Gloeckler, D. C. Hamilton, and L. J. Lanzerotti. 2008. “Mediation of the Solar Wind Termination Shock by Non-Thermal Ions.” Nature 454 (7200): 67–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moskowitz, Howard R., Sebastiano Porretta, and Matthias Silcher. 2008. Concept Research in Food Product Design and Development. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
An edited book
Kunche, Prajna. 2016. Metaheuristic Applications to Speech Enhancement. Edited by K. V. V. S. Reddy. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vidal, Edgar E., James A. Yurko, and Keith Smith. 2016. “Modern Beryllium Extraction: A State-of-the-Art Kroll Reduction Plant.” In Rare Metal Technology 2015, edited by Neale R. Neelameggham, Shafiq Alam, Harald Oosterhof, Animesh Jha, David Dreisinger, and Shijie Wang, 27–36. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “Missing ‘Galactic Dinosaurs’ Found Hiding In Plain Sight.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Los Angeles Metro Rail System. OSI-94-6R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mihalcin, Derek. 2008. “A Comparison of the Children’s Functional Assessment Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist Used in a Wraparound Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, Mary M. 2015. “G.M.’s Tentative Labor Deal Is Set for Approval by Union Leaders.” New York Times, October 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grafton 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Grafton 2015; Huang and Yang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Yang 2014)
  • Three authors: (Elia, Cantley, and Yaffe 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Decker et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

Other styles