How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, R. J. Dwayne. 2014. “Femtosecond Crystallography with Ultrabright Electrons and X-Rays: Capturing Chemistry in Action.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6175): 1108–1116.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heldin, C. H., and J. Ericsson. 2001. “Signal Transduction. RIPping Tyrosine Kinase Receptors Apart.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5549): 2111–2113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Christina W., Jim Ciston, and Matthew W. Kanan. 2014. “Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Liquid Fuel on Oxide-Derived Nanocrystalline Copper.” Nature 508 (7497): 504–507.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Swathy, J. R., M. Udhaya Sankar, Amrita Chaudhary, Sahaja Aigal, Anshup, and T. Pradeep. 2014. “Antimicrobial Silver: An Unprecedented Anion Effect.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7161.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Runcie, Tim, and Mark Dochtermann. 2013. Making Effective Business Decisions Using Microsoft Project. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Singh, Mohar, Ishwari Singh Bisht, and Manoranjan Dutta, eds. 2014. Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Legumes. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, and Hiroshi Takahara. 2010. “High-Speed Data Transmission Technology for the NEC SX-9.” In High Performance Computing on Vector Systems 2010, edited by Michael Resch, Katharina Benkert, Xin Wang, Martin Galle, Wolfgang Bez, Hiroaki Kobayashi, and Sabine Roller, 63–71. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “One Part Of The Brain Keeps Growing As An Adult.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Programs at the U.S. Army School of the Americas in Panama. ID-76-27. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson, Grace. 2008. “Head Start and at -Risk Students: Perceptions of Administrators, Practitioners, and Parents.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “What’s Old And New.” New York Times, August 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miller 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Miller 2014; Heldin and Ericsson 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heldin and Ericsson 2001)
  • Three authors: (Li, Ciston, and Kanan 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Swathy et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

Other styles