How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cullen, Bryan R. 2007. “Immunology. Outwitted by Viral RNAs.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 317 (5836): 329–330.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miguel, M-Carmen, and Stefano Zapperi. 2006. “Materials Science. Fluctuations in Plasticity at the Microscale.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5777): 1149–1150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Day, James M. D., D. Graham Pearson, and Lawrence A. Taylor. 2007. “Highly Siderophile Element Constraints on Accretion and Differentiation of the Earth-Moon System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5809): 217–219.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Carlson, Corey M., Bart T. Endrizzi, Jinghai Wu, Xiaojie Ding, Michael A. Weinreich, Elizabeth R. Walsh, Maqsood A. Wani, Jerry B. Lingrel, Kristin A. Hogquist, and Stephen C. Jameson. 2006. “Kruppel-like Factor 2 Regulates Thymocyte and T-Cell Migration.” Nature 442 (7100): 299–302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, Mary C., and David M. Sherman. 2009. Goat Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Erovic, Boban M. 2015. Manual of Head and Neck Reconstruction Using Regional and Free Flaps. Edited by Piero Lercher. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rebollo, Tomás Chacón, Macarena Gómez Mármol, and Samuele Rubino. 2015. “Finite Element Approximation of an Unsteady Projection-Based VMS Turbulence Model with Wall Laws.” In Boundary and Interior Layers, Computational and Asymptotic Methods - BAIL 2014, edited by Petr Knobloch, 47–73. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Massive New Study Suggests The Pill Has Prevented 200,000 Cases of Womb Cancer.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Federal Aviation Administration: Human Capital System Incorporates Many Leading Practices, but Improving Employees’ Satisfaction with Their Workplace Remains a Challenge. GAO-10-89. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheaton, Heather Frederick. 2012. “The Relationship between Team Captains’ Leadership Styles and Team Performance.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stubbs, John, and Ricardo Reyes. 2016. “Don’t Waste Your Vote. Trade It.” New York Times, September 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cullen 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Cullen 2007; Miguel and Zapperi 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miguel and Zapperi 2006)
  • Three authors: (Day, Pearson, and Taylor 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Carlson et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

Other styles