How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kagan, Jonathan C. 2013. “Immunology. Sensing Endotoxins from Within.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341 (6151): 1184–1185.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cooper, Kari M., and Adam J. R. Kent. 2014. “Rapid Remobilization of Magmatic Crystals Kept in Cold Storage.” Nature 506 (7489): 480–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kang, Myung-Koo, Si Joon Kim, and Hyun Jae Kim. 2014. “Fabrication of High Performance Thin-Film Transistors via Pressure-Induced Nucleation.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6858.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Scala, A., F. W. Starr, La Nave E, F. Sciortino, and H. E. Stanley. 2000. “Configurational Entropy and Diffusivity of Supercooled Water.” Nature 406 (6792): 166–169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, Harrison E. 2001. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kirk, Terry, ed. 2005. The Architecture of Modern Italy: Volume II: Visions of Utopia, 1900–Present. New York, NY: Princeton Archit. Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Olsen, Roar A., and Ludo B. F. Juurlink. 2013. “Hydrogen Dissociation on Stepped Pt Surfaces.” In Dynamics of Gas-Surface Interactions: Atomic-Level Understanding of Scattering Processes at Surfaces, edited by Ricardo Díez Muiño and Heriberto Fabio Busnengo, 101–129. Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “From Flapper To Flipper: How The Penguin Lost Its Flight.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Transportation Enhancements: Status of the $2.4 Billion Authorized for Nonmotorized Transportation. RCED-96-156. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Linsenmeyer, Justin Paul. 2017. “A Nice Place to Live and Work: A Mixed-Methods Case Study of a Residential Life Living-Learning Community and Employment Model at a Top-Tier Midwestern University.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belson, Ken. 2017. “Head Coach of Broncos Is Expected to Retire.” New York Times, January 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kagan 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kagan 2013; Cooper and Kent 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cooper and Kent 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kang, Kim, and Kim 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Scala et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

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