How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Olsen, Bjorn R. 2014. “Disease Models: Statins Give Bone Growth a Boost.” Nature 513 (7519): 494–495.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lujambio, Amaia, and Scott W. Lowe. 2012. “The Microcosmos of Cancer.” Nature 482 (7385): 347–355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kourtis, Nikos, Vassiliki Nikoletopoulou, and Nektarios Tavernarakis. 2012. “Small Heat-Shock Proteins Protect from Heat-Stroke-Associated Neurodegeneration.” Nature 490 (7419): 213–218.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kuznicki, S. M., V. A. Bell, S. Nair, H. W. Hillhouse, R. M. Jacubinas, C. M. Braunbarth, B. H. Toby, and M. Tsapatsis. 2001. “A Titanosilicate Molecular Sieve with Adjustable Pores for Size-Selective Adsorption of Molecules.” Nature 412 (6848): 720–724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McKean, John. 2014. Customer’s New Voice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meyers, Morton A. 2011. Meyers’ Dynamic Radiology of the Abdomen: Normal and Pathologic Anatomy. Edited by Chusilp Charnsangavej and Michael Oliphant. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Miles, Paul C. 2009. “Turbulent Flow Structure in Direct-Injection, Swirl-Supported Diesel Engines.” In Flow and Combustion in Reciprocating Engines, edited by C. Arcoumanis and Take Kamimoto, 173–256. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Ten Deadly Carcinogens (You’ve Probably Never Heard Of).” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Intercity Passenger Rail: The Financial Viability of Amtrak Continues to Be Threatened. T-RCED-97-94. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripathi, Richa Balmiki. 2008. “Oligodendrogensis Following Experimental Spinal Cord Injury.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. “P.S. Jerusalem.” New York Times, March 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olsen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Olsen 2014; Lujambio and Lowe 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lujambio and Lowe 2012)
  • Three authors: (Kourtis, Nikoletopoulou, and Tavernarakis 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kuznicki et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

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