How to format your references using the The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Comerio, Mary C. 2006. “Earthquake Anniversary. Can Buildings Be Made Earthquake-Safe?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5771): 204–206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fox, Peter, and James Hendler. 2011. “Changing the Equation on Scientific Data Visualization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6018): 705–708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, Roger J., Ning Zhou, and Brian A. MacVicar. 2006. “Ischemia Opens Neuronal Gap Junction Hemichannels.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5775): 924–927.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Modugno, Giovanni, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert J. Brecha, and Massimo Inguscio. 2002. “Collapse of a Degenerate Fermi Gas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5590): 2240–2243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kodama, Kenneth P., and Linda A. Hinnov. 2014. Rock Magnetic Cyclostratigraphy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Aroyo, Lora, Chris Welty, Harith Alani, Jamie Taylor, Abraham Bernstein, Lalana Kagal, Natasha Noy, and Eva Blomqvist, eds. 2011. The Semantic Web – ISWC 2011: 10th International Semantic Web Conference, Bonn, Germany, October 23-27, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 7031. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Meza-Jiménez, Jorge, Miguel Escamilla-López, and Ricardo Llamas-Cabello. 2014. “Statistical Process Control: A Vital Tool for Quality Assurance.” In Lean Manufacturing in the Developing World: Methodology, Case Studies and Trends from Latin America, edited by Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías, and Guillermo Cortes-Robles, 65–86. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Researchers May Have Created A H1N1 Flu Strain Capable Of Evading The Immune System.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Civil Service Commission Should Correct Weaknesses in Its Automatic Data Processing Policies and Practices. FPCD-78-94. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zbeeb, Khaled. 2009. “Transport and Dispersion of Fire Extinguishing Agents Downstream from Clutter Elements of Aircraft Engine Nacelles.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. “The Fencer.” New York Times, July 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Comerio 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Comerio 2006; Fox and Hendler 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fox and Hendler 2011)
  • Three authors: (Thompson, Zhou, and MacVicar 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Modugno et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
ISSN (print)0732-9113
ISSN (online)2305-9931

Other styles