How to format your references using the Vision Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piran, T. (2002). Astronomy. Demotion looms for gamma-ray bursts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5557), 986–987.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergink, S., & Jentsch, S. (2009). Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair. Nature, 458(7237), 461–467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jacobs, S. S., Giulivi, C. F., & Mele, P. A. (2002). Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5580), 386–389.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, K., Kurmoo, M., Wei, L.-Q., & Zeng, M.-H. (2013). Iterative mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography to study ion-trapping and rearrangements by a flexible cluster. Scientific Reports, 3, 3516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojar, R. M. (2010). Manual of Perioperative Care in Adult Cardiac Surgery. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Banaszkiewicz, P. A., & Kader, D. F. (Eds.). (2014). Classic Papers in Orthopaedics. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rini, A. (2013). The Birth of Proof: Modality and Deductive Reasoning. In K. Lodaya (Ed.), Logic and Its Applications: 5th Indian Conference, ICLA 2013, Chennai, India, January 10-12, 2013. Proceedings (pp. 34–49). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, October 8). Sunscreen Or Camouflage? Why So Many Animals Have Dark Backs And Pale Bellies. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). The Case for Programwide Statistical Reviews of Fraud and Abuse (No. 118596). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.-C. (2008). Defiant institutionalization: Democratization and social movements in South Korea, 1984–2002 [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, July 31). Chief Justice Is Admitted To Hospital After Seizure. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piran, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bergink & Jentsch, 2009; Piran, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergink & Jentsch, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Jacobs et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVision Research
AbbreviationVision Res.
ISSN (print)0042-6989
Sensory Systems

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