How to format your references using the Vision Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemingway, J. (2015). Malaria: Fifteen years of interventions. Nature, 526(7572), 198–199.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro, E., & Gil, B. (2008). Cell biology. RNA computing in a living cell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5900), 387–388.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, A., Yoneda-Kato, N., & Kato, J.-Y. (2013). CSN5 specifically interacts with CDK2 and controls senescence in a cytoplasmic cyclin E-mediated manner. Scientific Reports, 3, 1054.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Batterham, R. L., Ffytche, D. H., Rosenthal, J. M., Zelaya, F. O., Barker, G. J., Withers, D. J., & Williams, S. C. R. (2007). PYY modulation of cortical and hypothalamic brain areas predicts feeding behaviour in humans. Nature, 450(7166), 106–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, R. A. (2012). Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Surface Modification. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wang, T., Zhang, Y., Yu, H., & Wang, F. (Eds.). (2012). Advanced Manufacturing Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Glick, J. B., & Rupani, R. (2015). A 58 Year Old with Sun Damaged Skin. In R. Rupani (Ed.), Clinical Cases in Integrative Dermatology (pp. 23–32). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 14). Researchers Attempt To Develop A Vaccine For Alzheimer’s Disease. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: Further Improvements Needed to identify and Oversee Poorly Planned and Performing Projects (No. GAO-07-1211T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farrugia, T. J. (2010). Abundance, habitat use and movement patterns of the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatus productus) in a restored Southern California estuary (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 2). Informal Mets Stroll Toward The Season. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemingway, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hemingway, 2015; Shapiro & Gil, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapiro & Gil, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Yoshida, Yoneda-Kato, & Kato, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Batterham et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleVision Research
AbbreviationVision Res.
ISSN (print)0042-6989
Sensory Systems

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