How to format your references using the Vision Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vision Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roenneberg, T. (2013). Chronobiology: the human sleep project. Nature, 498(7455), 427–428.
A journal article with 2 authors
Page, M. T., & Hough, S. E. (2014). The New Madrid Seismic Zone: not dead yet. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6172), 762–764.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, D., Kim, M., & Cho, K.-H. (2014). A design principle underlying the paradoxical roles of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Scientific Reports, 4, 5573.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shinzato, C., Shoguchi, E., Kawashima, T., Hamada, M., Hisata, K., Tanaka, M., Fujie, M., Fujiwara, M., Koyanagi, R., Ikuta, T., Fujiyama, A., Miller, D. J., & Satoh, N. (2011). Using the Acropora digitifera genome to understand coral responses to environmental change. Nature, 476(7360), 320–323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dexter, A. L. (2012). Monitoring and Control of Information-Poor Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rjasanow, S. (2007). The Fast Solution of Boundary Integral Equations (O. Steinbach, Ed.). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Neueder, R. (2014). Conductivity of Electrolytes. In G. Kreysa, K.-I. Ota, & R. F. Savinell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Applied Electrochemistry (pp. 260–264). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vision Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 29). Motor Neuron Disease Linked To Schizophrenia, And Treatment Might Be Getting Closer. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). High Risk Series: Guaranteed Student Loans (HR-93-2). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glazer, K. (2015). Imagining a constructionist game-based pedagogical model: Using tabletop role-playing game creation to enhance literature education in high school English classes [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2016, October 11). Revisiting a Conductor’s Early Triumph, With Touches of Mystery and Elegance. New York Times, C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Roenneberg, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Page & Hough, 2014; Roenneberg, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Page & Hough, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lee et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shinzato et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleVision Research
AbbreviationVision Res.
ISSN (print)0042-6989
Sensory Systems

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