How to format your references using the Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wijnen, H., 2009. Circadian rhythms. A circadian loop asSIRTs itself. Science 324, 598–599.
A journal article with 2 authors
Finney, J., Acton, J.M., 2014. Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: identifying a hidden warhead. Nature 510, 476–477.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adkins, J.F., McIntyre, K., Schrag, D.P., 2002. The salinity, temperature, and delta18O of the glacial deep ocean. Science 298, 1769–1773.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cui, Y., Yang, Y., Ni, Z., Dong, Y., Cai, G., Foncelle, A., Ma, S., Sang, K., Tang, S., Li, Y., Shen, Y., Berry, H., Wu, S., Hu, H., 2018. Astroglial Kir4.1 in the lateral habenula drives neuronal bursts in depression. Nature 554, 323–327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cornier, J., Owen, A., Kwade, A., Van de Voorde, M., 2017. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Svennerberg, G., 2010. Beginning Google Maps API 3. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Marquardt, W., Morbach, J., Wiesner, A., Yang, A., 2010. Meta Model, in: Morbach, J., Wiesner, A., Yang, A. (Eds.), OntoCAPE: A Re-Usable Ontology for Chemical Process Engineering, RWTHedition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 57–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watch Tigers Frolic In A Pool After Being Rescued From Cages [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Managing Technology Change: Challenges and Opportunities for the United States Senate (No. T-AIMD-96-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, K.N., 2012. Institutions and Self-Governing Social Systems: Linking Reflexivity and Institutional Theories for Cybersecurity and Other Commons Governance Policies (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Pick a Pocket, Any Pocket. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wijnen, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Finney and Acton, 2014; Wijnen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Finney and Acton, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology
ISSN (print)0042-6822

Other styles