How to format your references using the Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shneiderman, B., 2008. Computer science. Science 2.0. Science 319, 1349–1350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siefermann, K.R., Abel, B., 2010. Chemistry. Ion chemistry mediated by water networks. Science 327, 280–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, C.H., Egli, M., Stewart, P.L., 2008. Structural insights into a circadian oscillator. Science 322, 697–701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yang, H., Ma, W., Gong, D., Hu, J., Yao, D., 2014. A longitudinal study on children’s music training experience and academic development. Sci. Rep. 4, 5854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jank, W., Shmueli, G., 2010. Modeling Online Auctions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Agapito, L., Bronstein, M.M., Rother, C. (Eds.), 2015. Computer Vision - ECCV 2014 Workshops: Zurich, Switzerland, September 6-7 and 12, 2014, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, L., 2011. Stories Gogo Never Told, in: Francis, D.A. (Ed.), Acting on HIV: Using Drama to Create Possibilities for Change. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Could a Shield of Hot Air Block Shockwaves? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1968. Significant Areas in Which GAO Has Been Engaged (No. 094487). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horwitz, M.H., 2017. Morphodynamics and Sediment Transport Pathways of the John’s Pass-Blind Pass Dual Inlet System: Pinellas County, Florida (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crair, B., 2017. Books; Instagram Effect. New York Times ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shneiderman, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Shneiderman, 2008; Siefermann and Abel, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Siefermann and Abel, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Yang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology
ISSN (print)0042-6822

Other styles