How to format your references using the Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ford, A.T., 2015. The mechanistic pathways of trophic interactions in human-occupied landscapes. Science 350, 1175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enquist, B.J., Niklas, K.J., 2001. Invariant scaling relations across tree-dominated communities. Nature 410, 655–660.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ellison, C.R.W., Chapman, M.R., Hall, I.R., 2006. Surface and deep ocean interactions during the cold climate event 8200 years ago. Science 312, 1929–1932.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yoon, B., Häkkinen, H., Landman, U., Wörz, A.S., Antonietti, J.-M., Abbet, S., Judai, K., Heiz, U., 2005. Charging effects on bonding and catalyzed oxidation of CO on Au8 clusters on MgO. Science 307, 403–407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adámek, J., 1991. Foundations of Coding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Berr, F., Oyama, T., Ponchon, T., Yahagi, N. (Eds.), 2014. Early Neoplasias of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Endoscopic Diagnosis and Therapeutic Decisions. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Noe, M.H., Fairley, J.A., 2016. Bullous Pemphigoid, in: Sami, N. (Ed.), Autoimmune Bullous Diseases: Approach and Management. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Happened To The Oil From The Deepwater Horizon Spill? ‘Marine Snow’ Provides A Clue [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. IRS Management: Business and Systems Modernization Pose Challenges (No. T-GGD/AIMD-99-138). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strand, K., 2014. Applying Public Relations Theory to Assess Service-Learning Relationships (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, M., Rashbaum, W.K., 2017. Accused of Spying, a New York City Correction Official Is Removed. New York Times A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ford, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Enquist and Niklas, 2001; Ford, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Enquist and Niklas, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoon et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology
ISSN (print)0042-6822

Other styles