How to format your references using the Virology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Virology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Singmaster, D., 2010. Obituary: Martin Gardner (1914-2010). Nature 465, 884.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krajcik, J.S., Sutherland, L.M., 2010. Supporting students in developing literacy in science. Science 328, 456–459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, S., Hashimoto, N., Ohnuki, S., 2013. Hydrogen-induced change in core structures of {110}[111] edge and {110}[111] screw dislocations in iron. Sci. Rep. 3, 2760.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alper, H., Moxley, J., Nevoigt, E., Fink, G.R., Stephanopoulos, G., 2006. Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production. Science 314, 1565–1568.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eynon, J., 2013. The Design Manager’s Handbook. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Krapivin, V.F., 2007. Globalization and Sustainable Development: Environmental Agendas, Springer Praxis Books. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Issa, T., Isaias, P., 2015. Physical, Cognitive and Affective Engineering, in: Isaias, P. (Ed.), Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns. Springer, London, pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Virology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Time Lapse Video of Strawberries [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Financial Literacy: Overview of Federal Activities, Programs, and Challenges (No. GAO-14-556T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Penney, G., 2010. Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Jeffries, M.P., 2017. The Rage in Harlem, and Beyond. New York Times BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Singmaster, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Krajcik and Sutherland, 2010; Singmaster, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krajcik and Sutherland, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Alper et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleVirology
ISSN (print)0042-6822

Other styles