How to format your references using the Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lipton P. Testing hypotheses: prediction and prejudice. Science. 2005;307:219–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. McConkey EH, Varki A. Genomics. Thoughts on the future of great ape research. Science. 2005;309:1499–501.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Borgia G, Coyle BJ, Keagy J. Comment on “Illusions promote mating success in great bowerbirds.” Science. 2012;337:292; author reply 292.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Posé N, Schrenk KJ, Araújo NAM, Herrmann HJ. Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner evolution. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5495.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Vallin RW. The Elements of Cantor Sets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Bull L, Kovacs T, editors. Foundations of Learning Classifier Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brown RE, Kuk JL. Composite Risk Scores. In: Mechanick JI, Kushner RF, editors. Lifestyle Medicine: A Manual for Clinical Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Safety.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Leaf-Mining Insects Vanished With Dinosaurs, But Then New Ones Showed Up [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal Coordination Efforts Could Be Further Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Jun. Report No.: GAO-12-647.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fister TW. Activating the art classroom: Combining critical pedagogy, visual culture and socially engaged art to promote agency amongst high school students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Dominus S. Stride Rights. New York Times. 2015 Apr 23;MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Safety
AbbreviationDrug Saf.
ISSN (print)0114-5916
ISSN (online)1179-1942
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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