How to format your references using the Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dupas P. Getting essential health products to their end users: subsidize, but how much? Science. 2014;345:1279–81.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shinnar R, Citro F. Energy. A road map to U.S. decarbonization. Science. 2006;313:1243–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shao B, Feng M, Zuo X. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of cobalt doped titanium dioxide. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7496.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hindupur SK, Colombi M, Fuhs SR, Matter MS, Guri Y, Adam K, et al. The protein histidine phosphatase LHPP is a tumour suppressor. Nature. 2018;555:678–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Barrett-Lennard GT. The Relationship Inventory. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Aceto L, Damgård I, Goldberg LA, Halldórsson MM, Ingólfsdóttir A, Walukiewicz I, editors. Automata, Languages and Programming: 35th International Colloquium, ICALP 2008, Reykjavik, Iceland, July 7-11, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Contucci P, Giardinà C, Nishimori H. Spin Glass Identities and the Nishimori Line. In: Monvel AB de, Bovier A, editors. Spin Glasses: Statics and Dynamics: Summer School, Paris 2007. Basel: Birkhäuser; 2009. p. 103–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Safety.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Earliest Known Pterodactyloid Discovered in China [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Input Processing Strategy is Risky and Lacks a Sound Analytical Basis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Apr. Report No.: T-IMTEC-92-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Huff JA. Interactions of glyphosate and dicamba in controlling key weed species [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Friedman L, Schwartz J. Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go. New York Times. 2017 Aug 28;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Safety
AbbreviationDrug Saf.
ISSN (print)0114-5916
ISSN (online)1179-1942
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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