How to format your references using the Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smaglik P. The philanthropic principle. Nature. 2004;431:719.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gaillardet J, Galy A. Atmospheric science. Himalaya--carbon sink or source? Science. 2008;320:1727–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grey M, Haggart JW, Smith PL. Variation in evolutionary patterns across the geographic range of a fossil bivalve. Science. 2008;322:1238–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sharma S, Kumar SK, Buldyrev SV, Debenedetti PG, Rossky PJ, Stanley HE. A coarse-grained protein model in a water-like solvent. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shick PL. Topology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Yung BHW, editor. Assessment Reform in Science: Fairness and Fear. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Carlson GW, De Lorenzi F, Rietjens M, Manconi A, Hoch D, Benditte-Klepetko H, et al. OPS and Mastectomy. In: Fitzal F, Schrenk P, editors. Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Guide to Clinical Practice. Vienna: Springer; 2010. p. 133–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Safety.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Drone’s Death Mission Provides Stunning Footage Of Volcano [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Jun. Report No.: GAO-10-583.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kerr AB. Exploring relationship awareness in organizational change using the Strength Deployment Inventory [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. ‘Big Rich Texas’ Becomes an Unlikely Reality-TV Hit. New York Times. 2012 Dec 23;A33B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Safety
AbbreviationDrug Saf.
ISSN (print)0114-5916
ISSN (online)1179-1942
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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