How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
SAVAGE, N. (2013) Photonics: Trick of the light. Nature 495, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
COWAN, C.R. and HYMAN, A.A. (2004) Centrosomes direct cell polarity independently of microtubule assembly in C. elegans embryos. Nature 431, 92–96.
A journal article with 3 authors
TRAAG, V.A., KRINGS, G. and VAN DOOREN, P. (2013) Significant scales in community structure. Scientific reports 3, 2930.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
GERSTENBERGER, M.C., WIEMER, S., JONES, L.M. and REASENBERG, P.A. (2005) Real-time forecasts of tomorrow’s earthquakes in California. Nature 435, 328–331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SCHMIDT, W. (2000) Optische Spektroskopie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
STEELE, S.R., HULL, T.L., READ, T.E., SACLARIDES, T.J., SENAGORE, A.J. and WHITLOW, C.B., eds (2016) The ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. 3rd ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
SEBESTIK, J. (2011) Otto Neurath’s Epistemology and Its Paradoxes. In Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science. Eds J. Symons, O. Pombo and J.M. Torres. Springer Netherlands. pp 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Case Reports.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. (2014) Russian Scientists Explore Mysterious Siberian Hole.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (2008) Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. GAO-08-1181T. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
OLIVA, D.A. (2012) Technological mediation: The implications of technology on the human experience.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
HOLLANDER, S. (1999) Rutgers Women Find Rhythm For 4th Straight Victory. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cowan and Hyman 2004; Savage 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowan and Hyman 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gerstenberger and others 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Case Reports
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2052-6121
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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