How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
CHIANG, T. (2000) Catching crumbs from the table. In the face of metahuman science, humans have become metascientists. Nature 405, 517.
A journal article with 2 authors
ORSINI, A. and FALCONI, C. (2014) Real-time monitoring of the solution growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by quartz microbalances and in-situ temperature sensors. Scientific reports 4, 6285.
A journal article with 3 authors
DENHOLM, I., DEVINE, G.J. and WILLIAMSON, M.S. (2002) Evolutionary genetics. Insecticide resistance on the move. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297, 2222–2223.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
LAN, P., TAN, M., ZHANG, Y., NIU, S., CHEN, J., SHI, S., QIU, S., WANG, X., PENG, X., CAI, G., CHENG, H., WU, J., LI, G. and LEI, M. (2018) Structural insight into precursor tRNA processing by yeast ribonuclease P. Science (New York, N.Y.) 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
PEREZ, A. (2013) Voice Over LTE. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
HOLZINGER, A., ZIEFLE, M., HITZ, M. and DEBEVC, M., eds (2013) Human Factors in Computing and Informatics: First International Conference, SouthCHI 2013, Maribor, Slovenia, July 1-3, 2013. Proceedings. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
VÄÄTÄJÄ, H., SIRKKUNEN, E. and AHVENAINEN, M. (2013) A Field Trial on Mobile Crowdsourcing of News Content Factors Influencing Participation. In Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, September 2-6, 2013, Proceedings, Part III. Eds P. Kotzé, G. Marsden, G. Lindgaard, J. Wesson and M. Winckler. Springer. pp 54–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Case Reports.

Blog post
HALE, T. (2017) Watch This Stunning Animation About The Hubble Telescope And The Universe.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1981) Award of Grant by Education. B-204905. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HUFF, J.A. (2010) Interactions of glyphosate and dicamba in controlling key weed species.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
VECSEY, G. (2011) The Know-Nothing Mets? There’s a Pattern Here. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chiang 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Chiang 2000; Orsini and Falconi 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Orsini and Falconi 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lan and others 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Case Reports
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2052-6121
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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