How to format your references using the Veterinary Record Case Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Record Case Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
KAIM, W. (2005) Chemistry. Odd electron on nitrogen: a metal-stabilized aminyl radical. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307, 216–217.
A journal article with 2 authors
YAMAMOTO, J. and TANAKA, H. (2001) Transparent nematic phase in a liquid-crystal-based microemulsion. Nature 409, 321–325.
A journal article with 3 authors
SUN, X.-Q., SHEN, H.-W. and CHENG, X.-Q. (2014) Trading network predicts stock price. Scientific reports 4, 3711.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
AVDOSHENKO, S.M., KOSKINEN, P., SEVINÇLI, H., POPOV, A.A. and ROCHA, C.G. (2013) Topological signatures in the electronic structure of graphene spirals. Scientific reports 3, 1632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
SHAHIDI, A. (2014) Balanced Asset Allocation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
AWANGE, J.L. (2016) Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications. 3rd ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
GREGORY, S. (2009) Finding Overlapping Communities Using Disjoint Community Detection Algorithms. In Complex Networks: Results of the 2009 International Workshop on Complex Networks (CompleNet 2009). Eds S. Fortunato, G. Mangioni, R. Menezes and V. Nicosia. Springer. pp 47–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Record Case Reports.

Blog post
HALE, T. (2016) Hundreds Of Puffins In Alaska Are The Latest Victims Of Climate Change. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1992) Student Financial Aid: Characteristics of Jobs Provided Through the College Work-Study Program. HRD-92-72BR. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BLACK, A.M. (2006) Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ohio Statewide Agricultural Leadership Program.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MARTIN, D. (2016) Phil Chess, Whose Label Elevated Unknown Blues Singers, Dies at 95. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kaim 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Yamamoto and Tanaka 2001; Kaim 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yamamoto and Tanaka 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Avdoshenko and others 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Record Case Reports
AbbreviationVet. Rec. Case Rep.
ISSN (online)2052-6121
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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