How to format your references using the Memetic Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memetic Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechty J (2012) Scientists and bankers - a new model army. Nature 484:143
A journal article with 2 authors
Ferreira PG, Starkman GD (2009) Einstein’s theory of gravity and the problem of missing mass. Science 326:812–815
A journal article with 3 authors
Mason GJ, Cooper J, Clarebrough C (2001) Frustrations of fur-farmed mink. Nature 410:35–36
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Komeda T, Kim Y, Kawai M, et al (2002) Lateral hopping of molecules induced by excitation of internal vibration mode. Science 295:2055–2058

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mallios WS (2010) Forecasting in Financial and Sports Gambling Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Larouche P, Cserne P (2013) National Legal Systems and Globalization: New Role, Continuing Relevance. T. M. C. Asser Press, The Hague, The Netherlands
A chapter in an edited book
Kaiser G, Buchholtz N (2014) Overcoming the Gap Between University and School Mathematics. In: Rezat S, Hattermann M, Peter-Koop A (eds) Transformation - A Fundamental Idea of Mathematics Education. Springer, New York, NY, pp 85–105

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memetic Computing.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Researchers Produce The First Synthetic Gasoline From Plants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Head Start: Additional Information on Implementation of Transportation Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson WA (2010) Middle school students’ experiences on a science museum field trip as Preparation for Future Learning. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Saslow L (2008) Unexpected State Aid to Ease School Taxes. New York Times LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMemetic Computing
ISSN (print)1865-9284
ISSN (online)1865-9292
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Optimization

Other styles