How to format your references using the Memetic Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Memetic Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tesche C (2000) QUANTUM MECHANICS: Enhanced: Schrodinger’s Cat Is Out of the Hat. Science 290:720–721
A journal article with 2 authors
Myers RA, Worm B (2003) Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423:280–283
A journal article with 3 authors
Christodoulides DN, Lederer F, Silberberg Y (2003) Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices. Nature 424:817–823
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li P-S, Lee I-L, Yu W-L, et al (2014) A novel albumin-based tissue scaffold for autogenic tissue engineering applications. Sci Rep 4:5600

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labadie N, Prins C, Prodhon C (2016) Metaheuristics for Vehicle Routing Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Heyden A, Kahl F, Olsson C, et al (2013) Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 9th International Conference, EMMCVPR 2013, Lund, Sweden, August 19-21, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dana RH (2009) Transitions in Psychotherapy, Clinical Diagnosis, and Assessment. In: Dana RH, Allen J (eds) Cultural Competency Training in a Global Society. Springer, New York, NY, pp 79–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Memetic Computing.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) This Time-Lapse Of Cell Division In A Tadpole Egg Is Apparently Real. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) The Law Enforcement Education Program Is in Serious Financial Disarray. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson LM (2001) Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D (1993) From Warhol to Rathole. New York Times 714

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMemetic Computing
ISSN (print)1865-9284
ISSN (online)1865-9292
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
Control and Optimization

Other styles