How to format your references using the Veterinary Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K. Private foundations push for higher postdoc salaries. Nature. 2002;415(6868):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long L, Ye H. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6427.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen GZ, Fray DJ, Farthing TW. Direct electrochemical reduction of titanium dioxide to titanium in molten calcium chloride. Nature. 2000;407(6802):361–364.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chung Y, Klimanskaya I, Becker S, et al. Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature. 2006;439(7073):216–219.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dayton G. Trade Mindfully. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2014.
An edited book
Valencia-García R, Lagos-Ortiz K, Alcaraz-Mármol G, del Cioppo J, Vera-Lucio N, editors. Technologies and Innovation: Second International Conference, CITI 2016, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 23-25, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing 2016. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 658).
A chapter in an edited book
Chan L, Chan L. The Male Patient. In: Chan L, Tse V, eds. Multidisciplinary Care of Urinary Incontinence: A Handbook for Health Professionals. Springer 2013:47–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Pathology.

Blog post
Fang J. Polar Bear DNA Extracted from Footprints in the Snow. IFLScience. IFLScience 2014:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office 1995 Jul. Report No.: AA-95-33(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reig MA. Cross-Dialectal Variability in Propositional Anaphora: A Quantitative and Pragmatic Study of Null Objects in Mexican and Peninsular Spanish. Ohio State University 2008:

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lardner G Jr. No Country for Second Chances. New York Times. 2010:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Pathology
AbbreviationVet. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0300-9858
ISSN (online)1544-2217
ScopeGeneral Veterinary

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