How to format your references using the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winker K. Migration and speciation. Nature. 2000 Mar 2;404(6773):36.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vafabakhsh R, Ha T. Extreme bendability of DNA less than 100 base pairs long revealed by single-molecule cyclization. Science. 2012 Aug 31;337(6098):1097–101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia Y, Sanchez JA, Wangh LJ. Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 1;4:5921.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Plantenberg JH, de Groot PC, Harmans CJPM, Mooij JE. Demonstration of controlled-NOT quantum gates on a pair of superconducting quantum bits. Nature. 2007 Jun 14;447(7146):836–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee WF. Verilog Coding for Logic Synthesis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Payan Y, editor. Soft Tissue Biomechanical Modeling for Computer Assisted Surgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. X, 398 p. (Studies in Mechanobiology, Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials; vol. 11).
A chapter in an edited book
Rasmussen K, Birk T. Climate Change, Tipping Elements and Security. In: Fernando HJS, Klaić Z, McCulley JL, editors. National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 39–48. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Test Could Predict If You’ll Die Within Five Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Trust Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Mar. Report No.: AIMD-95-95R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lowrance TL. Exploring the Four Modes of Organizational Forgetting in an Organization Post Acquisition [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Rodriguez Stands Alone, and That’s a Good Thing. New York Times. 2010 Feb 26;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEastern Mediterranean Health Journal
AbbreviationEast. Mediterr. Health J.
ISSN (print)1020-3397
ISSN (online)1687-1634
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles