How to format your references using the Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rice J. Metastasis: The rude awakening. Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):S55-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale JE, Li Y-G. Damage to the shallow Landers fault from the nearby Hector Mine earthquake. Nature. 2003 Jan 30;421(6922):524–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biteau B, Labarre J, Toledano MB. ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin. Nature. 2003 Oct 30;425(6961):980–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gao C, Lin Q, Zhang S, He J, Lu X, Wang G. Historical trends of atmospheric black carbon on Sanjiang Plain as reconstructed from a 150-year peat record. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 17;4:5723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davey KJ. Building Winning Algorithmic Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Klasing R, editor. Experimental Algorithms: 11th International Symposium, SEA 2012, Bordeaux, France, June 7-9, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XIII, 406 p. 116 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7276).
A chapter in an edited book
Hess S, Bierlaire M, Polak JW. Capturing Correlation and Taste Heterogeneity with Mixed GEV Models. In: Scarpa R, Alberini A, editors. Applications of Simulation Methods in Environmental and Resource Economics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 55–75. (The Economics of Non-Market Goods and Resources).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Leonard Nimoy Has Passed Away At Age 83. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy R&D: DOE’s Allocation of Funds for Basic and Applied Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 May. Report No.: RCED-90-148BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naughton CC. Assessing Appropriate Technology Handwashing Stations in Mali, West Africa [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Azarenka Pulls Out of the Open Over a Custody Dispute. New York Times. 2017 Aug 21;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEastern Mediterranean Health Journal
AbbreviationEast. Mediterr. Health J.
ISSN (print)1020-3397
ISSN (online)1687-1634
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles