How to format your references using the Veterinary Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pälike, H., 2013. Geochemistry. Impact and extinction. Science 339, 655–656.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nair, G., Raj, A., 2011. Molecular biology. Time-lapse transcription. Science 332, 431–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldini, J.U.L., McDermott, F., Fairchild, I.J., 2002. Structure of the 8200-year cold event revealed by a speleothem trace element record. Science 296, 2203–2206.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jin, Z., Gao, L., Zhou, Q., Wang, J., 2014. High-performance flexible ultraviolet photoconductors based on solution-processed ultrathin ZnO/Au nanoparticle composite films. Sci. Rep. 4, 4268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cobb, K., 2008. The Blackwell Guide to Theology and Popular Culture. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Anderson, T., 2010. Beginning Microsoft Word 2010. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferris, J.S., Winer, S.L., Grofman, B., 2016. The Duverger-Demsetz Perspective on Electoral Competitiveness and Fragmentation: With Application to the Canadian Parliamentary System, 1867–2011, in: Gallego, M., Schofield, N. (Eds.), The Political Economy of Social Choices, Studies in Political Economy. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 93–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Microbiology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Did Planet Nine Give The Solar System Its Tilt? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. SSA Computers: Long-Range Vision Needed to Guide Future Systems Modernization Efforts (No. IMTEC-91-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Onal, B., 2015. RFID feasibility study for check-out stations at supermarkets (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. 11,500 Sq. Ft., Avail. Jan. 1, (After the Inauguration). New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pälike, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Nair and Raj, 2011; Pälike, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nair and Raj, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Jin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Microbiology
AbbreviationVet. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0378-1135
ISSN (online)1873-2542
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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