How to format your references using the Veterinary Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yewdell, J.W., 2003. Immunology. Hide and seek in the peptidome. Science 301, 1334–1335.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harvey, T.H.P., Butterfield, N.J., 2008. Sophisticated particle-feeding in a large Early Cambrian crustacean. Nature 452, 868–871.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoehler, T.M., Bebout, B.M., Des Marais, D.J., 2001. The role of microbial mats in the production of reduced gases on the early Earth. Nature 412, 324–327.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ishikawa, K., Takenaga, K., Akimoto, M., Koshikawa, N., Yamaguchi, A., Imanishi, H., Nakada, K., Honma, Y., Hayashi, J.-I., 2008. ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis. Science 320, 661–664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spence, R., 2008. Introductory Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex.
An edited book
Shih, H., 2013. English Writings of Hu Shih: Literature and Society (Volume 1), China Academic Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Rička, J., Frenz, M., 2011. Polarized Light: Electrodynamic Fundamentals, in: Welch, A.J., Gemert, M.J.C. van (Eds.), Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 65–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Australia To Cut Welfare Payments For Anti-Vaxxers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1968. Review Of Reliability Of The Air Force Personnel Data System (No. B-164471). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le Blanc, J.D., 2017. Helping African American Middle School Students Transition to High School with the New Normal Project: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2007. T’s Not Crossed in Community College Tuition. New York Times LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yewdell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Yewdell, 2003; Harvey and Butterfield, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harvey and Butterfield, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishikawa et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Microbiology
AbbreviationVet. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0378-1135
ISSN (online)1873-2542
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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