How to format your references using the Veterinary Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bard, E., 2013. Climate change. Out of the African Humid Period. Science 342, 808–809.
A journal article with 2 authors
Song, W.J., Tezcan, F.A., 2014. A designed supramolecular protein assembly with in vivo enzymatic activity. Science 346, 1525–1528.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spradling, A., Drummond-Barbosa, D., Kai, T., 2001. Stem cells find their niche. Nature 414, 98–104.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Siracusa, M.C., Saenz, S.A., Hill, D.A., Kim, B.S., Headley, M.B., Doering, T.A., Wherry, E.J., Jessup, H.K., Siegel, L.A., Kambayashi, T., Dudek, E.C., Kubo, M., Cianferoni, A., Spergel, J.M., Ziegler, S.F., Comeau, M.R., Artis, D., 2011. TSLP promotes interleukin-3-independent basophil haematopoiesis and type 2 inflammation. Nature 477, 229–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms, 2011. Engineering Solutions for Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ganascia, J.-G., Lenca, P., Petit, J.-M. (Eds.), 2012. Discovery Science: 15th International Conference, DS 2012, Lyon, France, October 29-31, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickel, G., Gladkich, A., 2012. Religious Social Capital in Europe Connections between Religiosity and Civil Society, in: Pickel, G., Sammet, K. (Eds.), Transformations of Religiosity: Religion and Religiosity in Eastern Europe 1989 – 2010. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp. 69–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Polar Bear Cam Captures Life From The Bears Persepctive [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. FAA Information Technology: Complete Cost Data Not Provided to OMB (No. IMTEC-91-22). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey, T., 2014. The Box (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vanderhart, D., Pérez-Peña, R., Schmidt, M.S., 2015. In Note Left Behind, Gunman ‘Did Not Like His Lot in Life,’ Officials Say. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bard, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Bard, 2013; Song and Tezcan, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Song and Tezcan, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Siracusa et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Microbiology
AbbreviationVet. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0378-1135
ISSN (online)1873-2542
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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