How to format your references using the Veterinary Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liljas, A., 2009. Biochemistry. Leaps in translational elongation. Science 326, 677–678.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shuler, M.G., Bear, M.F., 2006. Reward timing in the primary visual cortex. Science 311, 1606–1609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heuer, A.H., Jia, C.L., Lagerlöf, K.P.D., 2010. The core structure of basal dislocations in deformed sapphire (alpha-Al₂O₃). Science 330, 1227–1231.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, J.J., Hu, J.M., Yang, T.N., Feng, M., Zhang, J.X., Chen, L.Q., Nan, C.W., 2014. Effect of strain on voltage-controlled magnetism in BiFeO₃-based heterostructures. Sci. Rep. 4, 4553.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stahl, S., Stenson, C., 2013. Introduction to Topology and Geometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Friedman, E.S., 2009. Handbook of Depression. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Y., Linderholt, A., Abrahamsson, T., 2014. Frequency Response Calculations of a Nonlinear Structure a Comparison of Numerical Methods, in: Kerschen, G. (Ed.), Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Anti-Landmine Drone Built By Indian Teenager Receives $730,000 Grant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Coordinating and Linking Programs Directed Toward Increasing the Numbers of Minority and Disadvantaged Individuals in the Health Professions (No. HRD-81-87). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grimpo, M., 2014. How asthma is related with the rate of influenza vaccination in California’s children (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Kershaw Could Be Out as Long as Six Weeks. New York Times B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liljas, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Shuler and Bear, 2006; Liljas, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shuler and Bear, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Microbiology
AbbreviationVet. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0378-1135
ISSN (online)1873-2542
General Medicine
General Veterinary

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