How to format your references using the Veterinary Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Veterinary Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Selkoe, D.J., 2012. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease. Science 337, 1488–1492.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully, M.O., Svidzinsky, A.A., 2009. Physics. The super of superradiance. Science 325, 1510–1511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohl, F.W., Scheich, H., Freeman, W.J., 2001. Change in pattern of ongoing cortical activity with auditory category learning. Nature 412, 733–736.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mills, L.S., Bragina, E.V., Kumar, A.V., Zimova, M., Lafferty, D.J.R., Feltner, J., Davis, B.M., Hackländer, K., Alves, P.C., Good, J.M., Melo-Ferreira, J., Dietz, A., Abramov, A.V., Lopatina, N., Fay, K., 2018. Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change. Science 359, 1033–1036.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attwood, D., Baybutt, P., Devlin, C., Fluharty, W., Hughes, G., Isaacson, D., Joyner, P., Lee, E., Lorenzo, D., Morrison, L., Ormsby, B., 2006. Human Factors Methods for Improving Performance in the Process Industries. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mulser, P., 2010. High Power Laser-Matter Interaction, Springer Tracts in Modern Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Vidal-Rosset, J., 2006. Does Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem Prove that Truth Transcends Proof?, in: Benthem, J. van, Heinzmann, G., Rebuschi, M., Visser, H. (Eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics: Assessing Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics Today. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 51–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Veterinary Microbiology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. People Who Suffer Migraines Have Different Mouth Bacteria [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Aviation Security: Federal Efforts to Secure U.S.-Bound Air Cargo Are in the Early Stages and Could Be Strengthened (No. GAO-07-660). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Keep, A.W., 2013. A nanopass framework for commercial compiler development (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowen, T., 2014. Gauging the Gender Gap, Present and Future. New York Times BU7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Selkoe, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Scully and Svidzinsky, 2009; Selkoe, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Svidzinsky, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Mills et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleVeterinary Microbiology
AbbreviationVet. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0378-1135
ISSN (online)1873-2542
General Medicine
General Veterinary

Other styles