How to format your references using the Vehicular Communications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vehicular Communications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E. Malartre, Words, words, words, Nature. 406 (2000) 833.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Buzsáki, A. Draguhn, Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, Science. 304 (2004) 1926–1929.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.-W. Ryu, C.-W. Park, K.-Y. Ryu, Disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb causes dysregulation of neural stem cell differentiation with premature gliogenesis, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7026.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.F. Coskun, A.E. Cetin, B.C. Galarreta, D.A. Alvarez, H. Altug, A. Ozcan, Lensfree optofluidic plasmonic sensor for real-time and label-free monitoring of molecular binding events over a wide field-of-view, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Fitschen, Building Reliable Trading Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J. Quay, J. Seaman, eds., John Dewey and Education Outdoors: Making Sense of the ‘Educational Situation’ through more than a Century of Progressive Reforms, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Grossman, Jewish Communal Affairs, in: A. Dashefsky, I. Sheskin (Eds.), American Jewish Year Book 2013: The Annual Record of the North American Jewish Communities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 165–199.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vehicular Communications.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Origins Of Mysterious World Trade Center Ship Determined, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Social Security Administration: Internet Access to Personal Earnings and Benefits Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H.T. Nguyen, The ugly duckling: Juvenile delinquents in non-delinquent networks, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, One Week of Silent Soccer Seems to Be Quite Enough, New York Times. (2002) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleVehicular Communications
ISSN (print)2214-2096

Other styles