How to format your references using the Vascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rhodes CJ. Type 2 diabetes-a matter of beta-cell life and death? Science 2005; 307: 380–384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alperin M, Hoehler T. Biogeochemistry. The ongoing mystery of sea-floor methane. Science 2010; 329: 288–289.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakamura K, Takahashi Y, Fujiwara T. Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Medaglia C, Giladi A, Stoler-Barak L, et al. Spatial reconstruction of immune niches by combining photoactivatable reporters and scRNA-seq. Science 2017; 358: 1622–1626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grove LC. Groups and Characters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.
An edited book
Haller A, Huang G, Huang Z, et al. (eds). Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2011 and 2012 Workshops: Combined WISE 2011 and WISE 2012 Workshops, Sydney Australia, October 12-14, 2011 and Paphos, Cyprus, November 28-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Warnecke T, Dohrmann P, Jürgens A, et al. Collaborative Learning through Cooperative Design Using a Multitouch Table. In: Luo Y (ed) Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 8th International Conference, CDVE 2011, Hong Kong, China, September 11-14, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 22–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vascular Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. Climate Change Could Bring A Dramatic Increase In Lightning. IFLScience, (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems. T-RCED-92-28, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 21 February 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ly L. Performance Appraisal in a Family Business. Doctoral Dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay G, Cyran R. Long Road Back for Greek Banks. New York Times, 30 August 2011, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVascular Medicine
AbbreviationVasc. Med.
ISSN (print)1358-863X
ISSN (online)1477-0377
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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