How to format your references using the Vascular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vascular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beutler E. Cell biology. ‘Pumping’ iron: the proteins. Science 2004; 306: 2051–2053.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ron D, Ito K. Cell biology. A translational pause to localize. Science 2011; 331: 543–544.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dehaene-Lambertz G, Dehaene S, Hertz-Pannier L. Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science 2002; 298: 2013–2015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prather JF, Peters S, Nowicki S, et al. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication. Nature 2008; 451: 305–310.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Etube LS. Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics of Offshore Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2000.
An edited book
Vande Wouwer A. Simulation of ODE/PDE Models with MATLAB®, OCTAVE and SCILAB: Scientific and Engineering Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lovekin CC, Guzik JA. Pulsations in Hot Massive Stars. In: Suárez JC, Garrido R, Balona LA, et al. (eds) Stellar Pulsations: Impact of New Instrumentation and New Insights. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, pp. 27–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vascular Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA and NOAA Agree: 2014 Was Hottest Year On Record. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation and the Environment: Initial Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Projects Reduce Emissions, and FAA Plans to Assess the Program’s Overall Performance as Participation Increases. GAO-09-37, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 7 November 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grasis JA. Controlling T lymphocyte activation with a molecular rheostat. Doctoral Dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Link K. Subversive Pleasure. New York Times, 24 May 2015, p. BR29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleVascular Medicine
AbbreviationVasc. Med.
ISSN (print)1358-863X
ISSN (online)1477-0377
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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