How to format your references using the Value in Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Value in Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K. Getting schooled. Nature. 2005;435(7043):850-851.
A journal article with 2 authors
Downing AL, Leibold MA. Ecosystem consequences of species richness and composition in pond food webs. Nature. 2002;416(6883):837-841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS. How and why do insects migrate? Science. 2006;313(5788):794-796.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mota LJ, Journet L, Sorg I, Agrain C, Cornelis GR. Bacterial injectisomes: needle length does matter. Science. 2005;307(5713):1278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gable J, Herrmann T. Counselling Skills for Dietitians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Bert TM, ed. Ecological and Genetic Implications of Aquaculture Activities. Vol 6. Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Bashir S, Rauber A. Improving Retrievability and Recall by Automatic Corpus Partitioning. In: Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, Bach Pedersen T, Tjoa AM, eds. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:122-140.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Value in Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Successfully Destroy Cancer With Nanobubbles. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Additional Actions and Oversight Urgently Needed to Reduce Waste and Improve Performance in Acquisitions and Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trichon MC. Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. For Archie Comics, a Return to Superheroes. New York Times. October 10, 2011:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleValue in Health
AbbreviationValue Health
ISSN (print)1098-3015
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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