How to format your references using the Government Information Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Government Information Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mézard, M. (2007). Computer science. Where are the exemplars? Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5814), 949–951.
A journal article with 2 authors
Remondes, M., & Schuman, E. M. (2002). Direct cortical input modulates plasticity and spiking in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Nature, 416(6882), 736–740.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gridi-Papp, M., Rand, A. S., & Ryan, M. J. (2006). Animal communication: complex call production in the túngara frog. Nature, 441(7089), 38.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Munshi, N., Agalioti, T., Lomvardas, S., Merika, M., Chen, G., & Thanos, D. (2001). Coordination of a transcriptional switch by HMGI(Y) acetylation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1133–1136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burger, M., Graeber, B., & Schindlmayr, G. (2014). Managing Energy Risk. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Blanchard, P., & Fröhlich, J. (Eds.). (2015). The Message of Quantum Science: Attempts Towards a Synthesis (Vol. 899). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sykes, P. (2010). Traffic Simulation with Paramics. In J. Barceló (Ed.), Fundamentals of Traffic Simulation (pp. 131–171). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Government Information Quarterly.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 10). This Seagull Fell Into A Tub Of Curry And Turned Orange. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Information Technology: Customs Automated Commercial Environment Program Progressing, but Need for Management Improvements Continues (GAO-05-267). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cai, S. (2008). 3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lesch, D. W., & Gelvin, J. (2017, January 11). What has Assad won? New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mézard, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mézard, 2007; Remondes & Schuman, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Remondes & Schuman, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gridi-Papp et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Munshi et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGovernment Information Quarterly
AbbreviationGov. Inf. Q.
ISSN (print)0740-624X
Library and Information Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles