How to format your references using the Government Information Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Government Information Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2003). Journals tighten up on biosecurity. Nature, 421(6925), 774.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yashin, V. V., & Balazs, A. C. (2006). Pattern formation and shape changes in self-oscillating polymer gels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5800), 798–801.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chao, B. F., Wu, Y. H., & Li, Y. S. (2008). Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5873), 212–214.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, C.-S., Chang, T.-Y., Lin, T.-Y., & Chen, Y.-F. (2014). Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors. Scientific Reports, 4, 6736.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lieberman, N. P. (2012). Troubleshooting Vacuum Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Merkel, R. (2007). Intervening in the Brain: Changing Psyche and Society. (G. Boer, J. Fegert, T. Galert, D. Hartmann, B. Nuttin, & S. Rosahl, Eds.) (Vol. 29). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mak, J., Faxén, K.-F., Janson, S., & Mycroft, A. (2010). Estimating and Exploiting Potential Parallelism by Source-Level Dependence Profiling. In P. D’Ambra, M. Guarracino, & D. Talia (Eds.), Euro-Par 2010 - Parallel Processing: 16th International Euro-Par Conference, Ischia, Italy, August 31 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part I (pp. 26–37). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Government Information Quarterly.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 27). With Silicon Pushed To Its Limits, What Will Power The Next Electronics Revolution? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program (No. GAO-05-752R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J. R. (2012). Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the performance of Vietnamese American identities (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008, August 24). Finding Farms To Share In. New York Times, p. NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2003; Yashin & Balazs, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yashin & Balazs, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Chao, Wu, & Li, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang, Chang, Lin, & Chen, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGovernment Information Quarterly
AbbreviationGov. Inf. Q.
ISSN (print)0740-624X
Library and Information Sciences
Sociology and Political Science

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