How to format your references using the Vadose Zone Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Vadose Zone Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Omelon, S. 2004. Graduate journal: conference survival. Nature 427(6974): 570.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, D., and X.L. Ma. 2013. Local decomposition induced by dislocation motions inside tetragonal Al(2)Cu compound: slip system-dependent dynamics. Sci. Rep. 3: 3157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruff, C.C., G. Ugazio, and E. Fehr. 2013. Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation. Science 342(6157): 482–484.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Judge, J., G.J. Wilson, R. Macarthur, R.J. Delahay, and R.A. McDonald. 2014. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013. Sci. Rep. 4: 3809.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Röpke, G. 2013. Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Villadsen, J. 2011. Bioreaction Engineering Principles (J. Nielsen and G. Lidén, editors). 3rd ed. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, S.-L., D.T.S. Wu, and S.-Y. Ying. 2008. Recent Application of Intronic MicroRNA Agents in Cosmetics. In: Ying, S.-Y., editor, Current Perspectives in microRNAs (miRNA). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht. p. 51–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Vadose Zone Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Why Ocean Energy Needs A Cyberinfrastructure To Thrive. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Information Technology: Leading Commercial Practices for Outsourcing of Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wall, J.D. 2017. The Effects of Acute L-Dopa on Brux-like and Masticatory Motor Patterns: EMG Phase Analysis in Rats.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 2008. Home-Style Colombian. New York Times: 14NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Omelon, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Omelon, 2004; Chen and Ma, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Ma, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Judge et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleVadose Zone Journal
AbbreviationVadose Zone J.
ISSN (online)1539-1663
ScopeSoil Science

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