How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson J (2014) John Cornforth (1917-2013). Nature 506:35
A journal article with 2 authors
Dobbelaere J, Barral Y (2004) Spatial coordination of cytokinetic events by compartmentalization of the cell cortex. Science 305:393–396
A journal article with 3 authors
Copley A, Avouac J-P, Wernicke BP (2011) Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Nature 472:79–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Perraki A, DeFalco TA, Derbyshire P, et al (2018) Author Correction: Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling. Nature

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen E, Ellis R, S. Pujar N (2014) Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Yalovsky S, Baluška F, Jones A (eds) (2010) Integrated G Proteins Signaling in Plants. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Brady BHG, Brown ET (2004) Rock strength and deformability. In: Brown ET (ed) Rock Mechanics for underground mining: Third edition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 85–141

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) New Tiniest Snail Smashes Month-Old World Record. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Data Center Consolidation: Agencies Making Progress, but Planned Savings Goals Need to Be Established [Reissued on March 4, 2016]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell JR (2013) Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2005) Justices Agree to Consider EBay Appeal in Patent Case. New York Times C9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dobbelaere and Barral 2004; Hanson 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dobbelaere and Barral 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Perraki et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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