How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baraniuk RG (2011) More is less: signal processing and the data deluge. Science 331:717–719
A journal article with 2 authors
Bottos A, Hynes NE (2014) Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis. Nature 514:309–310
A journal article with 3 authors
Dean R, Bonsall MB, Pizzari T (2007) Evolution. Aging and sexual conflict. Science 316:383–384
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kurita M, Araoka T, Hishida T, et al (2018) In vivo reprogramming of wound-resident cells generates skin epithelial tissue. Nature 561:243–247

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kindmann R, Krüger U (2013) Stahlbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Ebi KL, Burton I, McGregor GR (eds) (2009) Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Bessas A, Kontogiannis S, Zaroliagis C (2009) Incentive-Compatible Robust Line Planning. In: Ahuja RK, Möhring RH, Zaroliagis CD (eds) Robust and Online Large-Scale Optimization: Models and Techniques for Transportation Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 85–118

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) We Could Soon Prove If Life Began Outside The Solar System Or Not. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970) Observations of the Test of the Simplifed Method for Determining Eligibility of Persons for Adult Public Assistance Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsang SD (2012) The depth range of azimuthal anisotropy beneath Southern California via analyses of long-period Rayleigh-waves. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2016) New Rules for a Tough TV Season. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baraniuk 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baraniuk 2011; Bottos and Hynes 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bottos and Hynes 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kurita et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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