How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson M (2002) Spintronics: spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature 416:809–10; discussion 810
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis CC, Wurdack KJ (2004) Host-to-parasite gene transfer in flowering plants: phylogenetic evidence from Malpighiales. Science 305:676–678
A journal article with 3 authors
Pozzi F, Di Matteo T, Aste T (2013) Spread of risk across financial markets: better to invest in the peripheries. Sci Rep 3:1665
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Adelman ZN, Albritton LM, Boris-Lawrie K, et al (2018) Protect NIH’s DNA advisory committee. Science 362:409–410

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agachi PŞ, Nagy ZK, Cristea MV, Imre-Lucaci Á (2006) Model Based Control. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Cho Z-H (ed) (2015) 7.0 Tesla MRI Brain Atlas: In-vivo Atlas with Cryomacrotome Correlation, 2nd ed. 2015. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Majtner T, Yildirim-Yayilgan S, Hardeberg JY (2016) Efficient Melanoma Detection Using Texture-Based RSurf Features. In: Campilho A, Karray F (eds) Image Analysis and Recognition: 13th International Conference, ICIAR 2016, in Memory of Mohamed Kamel, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, July 13-15, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 30–37

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Evans K (2016) How AI Will Affect Urban Life In 2030, According To Scientists. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Student Financial Aid: Schools’ Experiences Using the National Student Loan Data System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cetin B (2012) Leaching of metals from high carbon fly ash mixed soils. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) Clash of the Titans. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson 2002; Davis and Wurdack 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davis and Wurdack 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Adelman et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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