How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laloë F (2003) Obituary: Jean Brossel (1918-2003). Nature 422:274
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunham LR, Hayden MR (2012) Medicine. Whole-genome sequencing: the new standard of care? Science 336:1112–1113
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappe M, Awater H, Krekelberg B (2000) Postsaccadic visual references generate presaccadic compression of space. Nature 403:892–895
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu JY, Feng L, Park HT, et al (2001) The neuronal repellent Slit inhibits leukocyte chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors. Nature 410:948–952

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo D, Morini M, Pallavicini A (2013) Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wang L (2016) Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Barnat J, Bauch P, Brim L (2012) Checking Sanity of Software Requirements. In: Eleftherakis G, Hinchey M, Holcombe M (eds) Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 10th International Conference, SEFM 2012, Thessaloniki, Greece, October 1-5, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 48–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2015) New Metamaterial Transmits Light With No Energy Loss. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Financial Literacy and Education Commission: Progress Made in Fostering Partnerships, but National Strategy Remains Largely Descriptive Rather Than Strategic. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
France KA (2015) Triadic Supervision: An Exploration of Supervisors’ Perceptions, Experiences and Practices. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Apuzzo M (2017) Comey Didn’t Want to Be Alone With President, He Told Sessions. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laloë 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Laloë 2003; Brunham and Hayden 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brunham and Hayden 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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