How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egan G (2000) Only connect. Nature 403:599
A journal article with 2 authors
Diffenbaugh NS, Field CB (2013) Changes in ecologically critical terrestrial climate conditions. Science 341:486–492
A journal article with 3 authors
Mehta MR, Lee AK, Wilson MA (2002) Role of experience and oscillations in transforming a rate code into a temporal code. Nature 417:741–746
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sun Y, Olson R, Horning M, et al (2002) Mechanism of glutamate receptor desensitization. Nature 417:245–253

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stamp M (2011) Information Security. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wojtaszek P (ed) (2011) Mechanical Integration of Plant Cells and Plants, First. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez V, Miller MH, Tyson W (2014) Analyzing STEM Faculty Demographics and Faculty Climate Survey. In: Gilmer PJ, Tansel B, Miller MH (eds) Alliances for Advancing Academic Women: Guidelines for Collaborating in STEM Fields. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 79–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Millions Of Parasitic Wasps Released In The US In Attempt To Control Invasive Beetle. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Review of Contract Award for Management of National Center for Research in Vocational Education. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eslava Rios J (2015) Automatic melanoma detection in dermatological images. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) A Habeas Corpus Appeal Veers to Capital Issues. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Egan 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Egan 2000; Diffenbaugh and Field 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Diffenbaugh and Field 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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