How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith CL (2007) How the LHC came to be. Nature 448:281–284
A journal article with 2 authors
Felfly H, Klein OD (2013) Sprouty genes regulate proliferation and survival of human embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep 3:2277
A journal article with 3 authors
Hosseini P, Wright CD, Bhaskaran H (2014) An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films. Nature 511:206–211
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Smith EI, Jacobs Z, Johnsen R, et al (2018) Humans thrived in South Africa through the Toba eruption about 74,000 years ago. Nature 555:511–515

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dewe PJ, O’Driscoll MP, Cooper CL (2010) Coping with Work Stress. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Moschitti A, Scandariato R (eds) (2012) Eternal Systems: First InternationalWorkshop, EternalS 2011, Budapest, Hungary, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Subramanian R, Hiltunen E, Gane PAC (2011) Potential Use of Micro- and Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites Exemplified by Paper. In: Kalia S, Kaith BS, Kaur I (eds) Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 121–152

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Carpineti C (2017) Watch How Marine Scientists In The Sea Of Cortez Tag Sharks. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Should Provide the Congress with More Information on the Pioneer Venus Project. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen J (2012) Adherence to medications among Vietnamese Americans 65 years of age and older. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; A Contest of 2 Generations, Molded by 2 Different Wars. New York Times 11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Smith 2007; Felfly and Klein 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Felfly and Klein 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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