How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimov SA (2005) Essays on science and society. Pleistocene Park: return of the mammoth’s ecosystem. Science 308:796–798
A journal article with 2 authors
Marsh M, van Meer G (2008) Cell biology. No ESCRTs for exosomes. Science 319:1191–1192
A journal article with 3 authors
Cosgaya JM, Chan JR, Shooter EM (2002) The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR as a positive modulator of myelination. Science 298:1245–1248
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fairbrother WG, Yeh R-F, Sharp PA, Burge CB (2002) Predictive identification of exonic splicing enhancers in human genes. Science 297:1007–1013

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Hossain ME, Moussavizadegan SH, et al (2016) Advanced Petroleum Reservoir Simulation. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Solari A (2009) Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA: Theory and Applications with R, 1st edn. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
La Piscopia P, Sullivan EE, McDermott C (2013) From Feast to Famine? The Archaeological Profession in Ireland in the New Millennium. In: Jameson JH, Eogan J (eds) Training and Practice for Modern Day Archaeologists. Springer, New York, NY, pp 69–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) New Method Proposed to Find Life on Other Planets. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Major Management Issues Facing DOD’s Development and Fielding Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu Y-C (2009) A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1992) Ideology Seems to Doom Cabinet Contender. New York Times B20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zimov 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Zimov 2005; Marsh and van Meer 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Marsh and van Meer 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Fairbrother et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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