How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Springer TA (2002) Immunology. Retrospective: César Milstein (1927-2002). Science 296:1253
A journal article with 2 authors
Lipinski C, Hopkins A (2004) Navigating chemical space for biology and medicine. Nature 432:855–861
A journal article with 3 authors
Sousa T, Marques GM, Domingos T (2009) Comment on “Energy uptake and allocation during ontogeny.” Science 325:1206; author reply 1206
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fike DA, Grotzinger JP, Pratt LM, Summons RE (2006) Oxidation of the Ediacaran ocean. Nature 444:744–747

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu FXX, Hoehn R, Thakkar V, Yuh E (2017) Hydroprocessing for Clean Energy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
An edited book
Cokkinos DV, Pantos C, Heusch G, Taegtmeyer H (eds) (2006) Myocardial Ischemia: From mechanisms to therapeutic potentials. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Hoang MP, Mihm MC (2014) Spindle and Epithelioid Cell (Spitz) Nevus and Variants. In: Hoang MP, Mihm MC Jr (eds) Melanocytic Lesions: A Case Based Approach. Springer, New York, NY, pp 143–177

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 3D Printer Builds Homes From Mud In Impoverished Areas. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayres R (2017) Optimization of a Novel Oxy-Michael Ugi-Smiles Reaction. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J, Hale M, Genzlinger N, Lyons M (2016) An Hour, or Less, That Stood Out. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Springer 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Springer 2002; Lipinski and Hopkins 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lipinski and Hopkins 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fike et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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