How to format your references using the Urban Ecosystems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Urban Ecosystems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marino J (2014) On the road again. Science 344:1194
A journal article with 2 authors
Smaglik P, Smith A (2002) A route to flexible working. Nature 415:4–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiserer A, Ritter S, Rempe G (2013) Nondestructive detection of an optical photon. Science 342:1349–1351
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Khriachtchev L, Pettersson M, Runeberg N, et al (2000) A stable argon compound. Nature 406:874–876

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fulton BS (2014) Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dima IC (2015) Modelling and Simulation in Management: Econometric Models Used in the Management of Organizations. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Saito H (2013) Mast Cells. In: Önerci TM (ed) Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Urban Ecosystems.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) California Set To Give Solar Panels To Low-Income Families For Free. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Request for Assistance on Allegations From K. R. Higgins Concerning Planning Research Corporation’s Contract at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kao CH (2012) Community mental health care for Chinese Americans: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Cadillac’s Ad Gambit: Selling Luxury Cars by Promoting Unity. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marino 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik and Smith 2002; Marino 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smaglik and Smith 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Khriachtchev et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleUrban Ecosystems
AbbreviationUrban Ecosyst.
ISSN (print)1083-8155
ISSN (online)1573-1642
Urban Studies

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