How to format your references using the Updates in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Updates in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buchman TG (2002) The community of the self. Nature 420:246–251
A journal article with 2 authors
Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr (2006) Public health. Community studies for vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza. Science 311:615–616
A journal article with 3 authors
Showalter MR, Hedman MM, Burns JA (2011) The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 sends ripples through the rings of Jupiter. Science 332:711–713
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fares MA, Ruiz-González MX, Moya A, et al (2002) Endosymbiotic bacteria: groEL buffers against deleterious mutations. Nature 417:398

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Takezawa K (2005) Introduction to Nonparametric Regression: Takezawa/Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Kueper BH, Stroo HF, Vogel CM, Ward CH (2014) Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Clay SM, Fong SS (2013) Systems Biology. In: Fong SS (ed) Developing Biofuel Bioprocesses Using Systems and Synthetic Biology. Springer, New York, NY, pp 21–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Updates in Surgery.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) China Fails In Attempt To Lift Ban On Tiger Farming At Major Wildlife Summit. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Transportation Financing: Challenges in Meeting Long-Term Funding Needs for FAA, Amtrak, and the Nation’s Highways. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade MR (2008) The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Boucher B (2017) Between Fable and Fact. New York Times BR9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUpdates in Surgery
AbbreviationUpdates Surg.
ISSN (print)2038-131X
ISSN (online)2038-3312

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