How to format your references using the Updates in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Updates in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Melhuish EC (2011) Education. Preschool matters. Science 333:299–300
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Balskus EP, Walsh CT (2010) The genetic and molecular basis for sunscreen biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Science 329:1653–1656
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Hung R-J, Pak CW, Terman JR (2011) Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and disassembly by Mical. Science 334:1710–1713
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Rydell-Törmänen K, Andréasson K, Hesselstrand R, Westergren-Thorsson G (2014) Absence of fibromodulin affects matrix composition, collagen deposition and cell turnover in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma. Sci Rep 4:6383

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wallgren A, Wallgren B (2014) Register-Based Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Gaetan C (2008) Modélisation et statistique spatiales. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stephens FO, Aigner KR (2016) Symptoms of Cancer: Local and General. In: Aigner KR (ed) Basics of Oncology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Updates in Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2014) World’s Fastest Camera Takes 4.4 TRILLION Frames Per Second. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1973) Opportunities for Improvement in the Administration of Technical Training Activities. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Phillips TL (2012) “Outsider Within” Narratives of Diversity Leadership: An Exploratory Case Study of Executive Women of Color. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Akbar K (2017) Being in This World Makes Me Feel Like a Time Traveler. New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUpdates in Surgery
AbbreviationUpdates Surg.
ISSN (print)2038-131X
ISSN (online)2038-3312
ScopeSurgery

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