How to format your references using the Updates in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Updates in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Levine M (2014) Retrospective. Walter Gehring (1939-2014). Science 345:277
A journal article with 2 authors
Kostarelos K, Novoselov KS (2014) Materials science. Exploring the interface of graphene and biology. Science 344:261–263
A journal article with 3 authors
Adams EJ, Chien Y-H, Garcia KC (2005) Structure of a gammadelta T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22. Science 308:227–231
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bita I, Yang JKW, Jung YS, et al (2008) Graphoepitaxy of self-assembled block copolymers on two-dimensional periodic patterned templates. Science 321:939–943

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paczosa S, Peruchini C (2013) Selling Professional and Financial Services Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lebeda A, Spencer-Phillips PTN, Cooke BM (2008) The Downy Mildews - Genetics, Molecular Biology and Control. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Dennedy MF, Fox J, Finneran TR (2014) Developing Privacy Engineering Requirements. In: Fox J, Finneran TR (eds) The Privacy Engineer’s Manifesto: Getting from Policy to Code to QA to Value. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 93–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Updates in Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The “Water World” Theory Of The Origins Of Life Revamped. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Mass Transit: Reauthorization Offers Opportunity To Address the Appropriate Federal Role. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patra P (2009) Image scaling with three different interpolation techniques and their comparisons. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) In the Age of Reality TV, a Best-Selling Author Calls In Real-Life Heroes. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUpdates in Surgery
AbbreviationUpdates Surg.
ISSN (print)2038-131X
ISSN (online)2038-3312

Other styles