How to format your references using the Updates in Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Updates in Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parton RG (2001) Cell biology. Life without caveolae. Science 293:2404–2405
A journal article with 2 authors
Hejnol A, Martindale MQ (2008) Acoel development indicates the independent evolution of the bilaterian mouth and anus. Nature 456:382–386
A journal article with 3 authors
Shcherbina AY, Talley LD, Rudnick DL (2003) Direct observations of North Pacific ventilation: brine rejection in the Okhotsk Sea. Science 302:1952–1955
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu BP, Fournier A, GrandPré T, Strittmatter SM (2002) Myelin-associated glycoprotein as a functional ligand for the Nogo-66 receptor. Science 297:1190–1193

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1996) Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zohuri B (2015) Thermodynamics In Nuclear Power Plant Systems, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Nowicki B, Nowicki S (2013) DAF as a Therapeutic Target for Steroid Hormones: Implications for Host–Pathogen Interactions. In: Lambris JD, Holers VM, Ricklin D (eds) Complement Therapeutics. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 83–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Updates in Surgery.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) A ‘Bionic Leaf’ Turns Solar Energy Into Chemicals And Fuels. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Aviation Security: TSA’s Revised Cost Comparison Provides a More Reasonable Basis for Comparing the Costs of Private-Sector and TSA Screeners. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gerhart T (2013) Convex optimization techniques and their application in hyperspectral video processing. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (1999) The Sailors Of Winter: In the Cold, Cold Sea. New York Times 812

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUpdates in Surgery
AbbreviationUpdates Surg.
ISSN (print)2038-131X
ISSN (online)2038-3312

Other styles