How to format your references using the Ultramicroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultramicroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Egger, Refinement-cut: user-guided segmentation algorithm for translational science, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5164.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Barrangou, T.R. Klaenhammer, Microbiology: Bacteria get vaccinated, Nature. 513 (2014) 175–176.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Mukhopadhyay, K.A. Farley, A. Montanari, A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3, Science. 291 (2001) 1952–1955.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.R. Shapiro, I. Seidl-Adams, C.M. De Moraes, A.G. Stephenson, M.C. Mescher, Dynamics of short- and long-term association between a bacterial plant pathogen and its arthropod vector, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.L. Wolf, M. Medikonda, Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012.
An edited book
P.J.J. Welfens, M. Weske, eds., Digital Economic Dynamics: Innovations, Networks and Regulations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Kuiper, K. Boersma, J. Van Den Akker, Towards a More Curricular Focus in International Comparative Studies on Mathematics and Science Education, in: K. Boersma, M. Goedhart, O. de Jong, H. Eijkelhof (Eds.), Research and the Quality of Science Education, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultramicroscopy.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Entangled Whale’s Ordeal Ends As Scientists Free It, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, No Federal Programs Are Designed Primarily To Support Engineering Education, but Many Do, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Garcia, Cutting a thorn: The cleansing function of female genital cutting, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: Device Explodes In Capital, New York Times. (2004) A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUltramicroscopy
ISSN (print)0304-3991
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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