How to format your references using the Ultramicroscopy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ultramicroscopy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Grinnell, Rethink our approach to assessing risk, Nature. 522 (2015) 257.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Alexandrakis, S.Ε. Poulos, An holistic approach to beach erosion vulnerability assessment, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6078.
A journal article with 3 authors
W.K.W. Li, W.G. Harrison, E.J.H. Head, Coherent sign switching in multiyear trends of microbial plankton, Science. 311 (2006) 1157–1160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.M. Hoffmeister, E.C. Josefsson, N.A. Isaac, H. Clausen, J.H. Hartwig, T.P. Stossel, Glycosylation restores survival of chilled blood platelets, Science. 301 (2003) 1531–1534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Carrasco, M. Johnston, Non-Binary Error Control Coding for Wireless Communication and Data Storage, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2008.
An edited book
A.T. Hofstede, B. Benatallah, H.-Y. Paik, eds., Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2007 International Workshops, BPI, BPD, CBP, ProHealth, RefMod, semantics4ws, Brisbane, Australia, September 24, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
U. Dayal, R. Vennelakanti, R. Sharma, M. Castellanos, M. Hao, C. Patel, Collaborative Business Intelligence: Enabling Collaborative Decision Making in Enterprises, in: R. Meersman, Z. Tari (Eds.), On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2008: OTM 2008 Confederated International Conferences, CoopIS, DOA, GADA, IS, and ODBASE 2008, Monterrey, Mexico, November 9-14, 2008, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 8–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ultramicroscopy.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, According To This Sleep Expert, Work And School Shouldn’t Start Until After 10am, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Preliminary Observations on TSA’s Progress and Challenges in Meeting the Statutory Mandate for Screening Air Cargo on Passenger Aircraft, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Washington, Counseling students ability to diagnose Asperger’s Syndrome, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Inquiry Focuses on White House Role in Preserving Union Pensions at Delphi, New York Times. (2010) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleUltramicroscopy
ISSN (print)0304-3991
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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