How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goode, J., 2012. Viticulture: Fruity with a hint of drought. Nature 492, 351–353.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yu, H.K., Lee, J.-L., 2014. Growth mechanism of metal-oxide nanowires synthesized by electron beam evaporation: a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid process. Sci. Rep. 4, 6589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietz, H., Douglas, S.M., Shih, W.M., 2009. Folding DNA into twisted and curved nanoscale shapes. Science 325, 725–730.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kitamura, H., Tsuneyuki, S., Ogitsu, T., Miyake, T., 2000. Quantum distribution of protons in solid molecular hydrogen at megabar pressures. Nature 404, 259–262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Masujima, M., 2005. Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Hoalst-Pullen, N., Patterson, M.W. (Eds.), 2010. Geospatial Technologies in Environmental Management, Geotechnologies and the Environment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Jahan, S., Sakidin, H., Nazar, R., 2016. Simultaneous Effects of Soret and Dufour on the Unsteady Stagnation Point Flow of Micropolar Fluid Towards a Permeable Stretching Sheet, in: Kılıçman, A., Srivastava, H.M., Mursaleen, M., Abdul Majid, Z. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Mathematical Sciences: Selected Papers from ICREM7 2015. Springer, Singapore, pp. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Rampaging Elephant Smashes House, Then Rescues Crying Baby [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. The Rise of Political Science (No. 137895). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, R.T., 2014. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Program Managers Regarding an Automated Logistics Environment (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. U.S. Grateful to Be Part Of a Sport’s Growth. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goode, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Goode, 2012; Yu and Lee, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yu and Lee, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kitamura et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

Other styles