How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt, B., 2005. Astronomy. The link between supernovae and gamma ray bursts. Science 308, 1265–1266.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goodson, J.L., Bass, A.H., 2000. Forebrain peptides modulate sexually polymorphic vocal circuitry. Nature 403, 769–772.
A journal article with 3 authors
He, Y., Michaels, S.D., Amasino, R.M., 2003. Regulation of flowering time by histone acetylation in Arabidopsis. Science 302, 1751–1754.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jaenicke-Després, V., Buckler, E.S., Smith, B.D., Gilbert, M.T.P., Cooper, A., Doebley, J., Pääbo, S., 2003. Early allelic selection in maize as revealed by ancient DNA. Science 302, 1206–1208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hübschmann, H.-J., 2015. Handbook of GC-MS. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Fourmigué, M., Ouahab, L. (Eds.), 2009. Conducting and Magnetic Organometallic Molecular Materials, Topics in Organometallic Chemistry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Dudley, A.C., Cloer, E.W., Melero-Martin, J.M., 2012. The Role of Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells in Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis, in: Hayat, M.A. (Ed.), Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 8: Therapeutic Applications in Disease and Injury, Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Create World’s Thinnest Light Bulb Using Graphene [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Project (No. RCED-97-51). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker, R.D., 2014. A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017. Learning to Speak Al Jazeera. New York Times SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schmidt, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Goodson and Bass, 2000; Schmidt, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goodson and Bass, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Jaenicke-Després et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

Other styles