How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wuethrich, B., 2000. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY: Feds Team Up With a Company to Protect 17 Threatened Fish Species. Science 289, 385.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cobey, S., Lipsitch, M., 2012. Niche and neutral effects of acquired immunity permit coexistence of pneumococcal serotypes. Science 335, 1376–1380.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gaillard, F., Scaillet, B., Arndt, N.T., 2011. Atmospheric oxygenation caused by a change in volcanic degassing pressure. Nature 478, 229–232.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Morel, C.M., Touré, Y.T., Dobrokhotov, B., Oduola, A.M.J., 2002. The mosquito genome--a breakthrough for public health. Science 298, 79.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacRoberts, 2014. MacRoberts on Scottish Construction Contracts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Mimura, N. (Ed.), 2008. Asia-Pacific Coasts and Their Management: States of Environment, Coastal Systems and Continental Margins. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Uludag, A.A., Erdaş, A., Özcan, Ş., Nalci, D., Güler, M.O., Çetinkaya, T., Uysal, M., Akbulut, H., 2015. Cr- and V-Substituted LiMn2O4 Cathode Electrode Materials for High-Rate Battery Applications, in: Dincer, I., Colpan, C.O., Kizilkan, O., Ezan, M.A. (Eds.), Progress in Clean Energy, Volume 2: Novel Systems and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Global Ecosystems At Risk Of Failing As Biodiversity Falls Below Safety Limit, Scientists Warn [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Vocational Education: Status in School Year 1990-91 and Early Signs of Change at Secondary Level (No. HRD-93-71). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson, M., 2012. A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Building Literature (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1993. Neediest Cases Assists With a Christmas Tree. New York Times 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wuethrich, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Cobey and Lipsitch, 2012; Wuethrich, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cobey and Lipsitch, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Morel et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

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