How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anand, M., 2014. Planetary science. Analyzing Moon rocks. Science 344, 365–366.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soubeyrand, B., Plotkin, S.A., 2002. Microbial evolution: antitoxin vaccines and pathogen virulence. Nature 417, 609–10; discussion 610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deana, A., Celesnik, H., Belasco, J.G., 2008. The bacterial enzyme RppH triggers messenger RNA degradation by 5’ pyrophosphate removal. Nature 451, 355–358.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bennie, J., Davies, T.W., Duffy, J.P., Inger, R., Gaston, K.J., 2014. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights. Sci. Rep. 4, 3789.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 2007. Guidelines for Safe and Reliable Instrumented Protective Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Aubert, G., 2006. Mathematical Problems in Image Processing: Partial Differential Equations and the Calculus of Variations, Second Edition. ed, Applied Mathematical Sciences. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Kawakatsu, H., 2007. High-Frequency Dynamic Force Microscopy, in: Bhushan, B., Kawata, S., Fuchs, H. (Eds.), Applied Scanning Probe Methods V: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, NanoScience and Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 99–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2015. Jupiter May Have Kicked A Gas Giant Planet Out Of The Solar System Billions Of Years Ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. Problems Associated With Developing Large, Complex Data Processing Systems (No. FGMSD-79-49). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon, J.Y., 2012. Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2016. Olympian’s Mother Leaves a Suitcase at Check-In, and It Is Destroyed. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anand, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Anand, 2014; Soubeyrand and Plotkin, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Soubeyrand and Plotkin, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Bennie et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

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