How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2003. Axeing of website article sparks row at Max Planck. Nature 422, 460.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matsumoto, Y., Maller, J.L., 2004. A centrosomal localization signal in cyclin E required for Cdk2-independent S phase entry. Science 306, 885–888.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiting, M.F., Bradler, S., Maxwell, T., 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421, 264–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gu, W., Li, H., Zhao, P., Yu, R., Pan, G., Gao, S., Xie, X., Huang, A., He, L., Wang, G., 2014. Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies. Sci. Rep. 4, 6661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R.G., 2004. Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sanchez, E., 2012. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms, Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hwang, Y.-S., Kearney, P., 2015. Study One: Mindfulness Intervention for Mothers, in: Kearney, P. (Ed.), A Mindfulness Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: New Directions in Research and Practice, Mindfulness in Behavioral Health. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 59–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Sorry Everyone, That Alien Signal Was Probably Just A “Terrestrial Disturbance” [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on The Future of Air Traffic Control: The R&D Agenda (No. GAO-06-778R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tofthagen, C.S., 2008. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Tool (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2015. Fluid and Complicated Couplings. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2003; Matsumoto and Maller, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Matsumoto and Maller, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

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