How to format your references using the Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2010. World view: Curing climate backlash. Nature 464, 28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thyer, R., Ellefson, J., 2014. Synthetic biology: New letters for life’s alphabet. Nature 509, 291–292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi, N., Roy, S., Tully, J.C., 2009. Dynamical steering and electronic excitation in NO scattering from a gold surface. Science 326, 829–832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rehmann, H., Das, J., Knipscheer, P., Wittinghofer, A., Bos, J.L., 2006. Structure of the cyclic-AMP-responsive exchange factor Epac2 in its auto-inhibited state. Nature 439, 625–628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hein, H., Kunze, W., 2005. Umweltanalytik mit Spektrometrie und Chromatographie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Caminiti, R., Gontrani, L. (Eds.), 2014. The Structure of Ionic Liquids, Soft and Biological Matter. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gamallo-Chicano, C., Roanes-Lozano, E., Gamallo-Amat, C., 2014. A Rule–Based Expert System for Vaginal Cytology Diagnosis, in: Aranda-Corral, G.A., Calmet, J., Martín-Mateos, F.J. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Symbolic Computation: 12th International Conference, AISC 2014, Seville, Spain, December 11-13, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 34–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. This New Treatment Could Make Pancreatic Cancer A Manageable Disease [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Core Competencies in Financial Management for Information Technology Personnel Implementing Financial Systems in the Federal Government (No. JFMIP-ET-98-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villanueva, R., 2015. Issues of performance practice: The influence of Franz Strauss upon Richard Strauss’s Horn Concerto No. 1 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., Baker, A.L., 2017. A Grim Measure of Equality for Women in Blue. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz, 2010; Thyer and Ellefson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thyer and Ellefson, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Rehmann et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleTunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research
AbbreviationTunn. Undergr. Space Technol.
ISSN (print)0886-7798
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Building and Construction

Other styles