How to format your references using the Algebra universalis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algebra universalis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rarity, J.G.: Physics. Getting entangled in free space. Science. 301, 604–605 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Schramke, V., Allshire, R.: Hairpin RNAs and retrotransposon LTRs effect RNAi and chromatin-based gene silencing. Science. 301, 1069–1074 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Maret, S., Bergin, E.A., Lada, C.J.: A low fraction of nitrogen in molecular form in a dark cloud. Nature. 442, 425–427 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Loose, C., Jensen, K., Rigoutsos, I., Stephanopoulos, G.: A linguistic model for the rational design of antimicrobial peptides. Nature. 443, 867–869 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Toutain, L., Minaburo, A.: Local Networks and the Internet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Bonfiglio, A., De Rossi, D. eds: Wearable Monitoring Systems. Springer US, Boston, MA (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Kamina, T., Aotani, T., Masuhara, H.: Generalized Layer Activation Mechanism for Context-Oriented Programming. In: Chiba, S., Südholt, M., Eugster, P., Ziarek, L., and Leavens, G.T. (eds.) Transactions on Modularity and Composition I. pp. 123–166. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algebra universalis.

Blog post
Fang, J.: DNA Nanobots Set To Seek and Destroy Cancer Cells In Human Trial,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Use of Corps Electronic Signature System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Libman, M.: A policy analysis of the Penal Code Section 186.20-186.33: California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K.: It’s Fresh, Local and Elegant, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgebra universalis
AbbreviationAlgebra Universalis
ISSN (print)0002-5240
ISSN (online)1420-8911
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

Other styles