How to format your references using the Algebra universalis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Algebra universalis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Howard, K.: San Diego. Nature. 426, 689 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Y., Sontheimer, E.J.: Structural biology. Cascading into focus. Science. 345, 1452–1453 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lohrer, A.M., Thrush, S.F., Gibbs, M.M.: Bioturbators enhance ecosystem function through complex biogeochemical interactions. Nature. 431, 1092–1095 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grandjean, D., Coutiño-Gonzalez, E., Cuong, N.T., Fron, E., Baekelant, W., Aghakhani, S., Schlexer, P., D’Acapito, F., Banerjee, D., Roeffaers, M.B.J., Nguyen, M.T., Hofkens, J., Lievens, P.: Origin of the bright photoluminescence of few-atom silver clusters confined in LTA zeolites. Science. 361, 686–690 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd, K.: TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Staudter, C.: Design for Six Sigma+Lean Toolset: Implementing Innovations Successfully. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Luu, V.-T., Ripken, M., Forestier, G., Fondement, F., Muller, P.-A.: Using Glocal Event Alignment for Comparing Sequences of Significantly Different Lengths. In: Perner, P. (ed.) Machine Learning and Data Mining in Pattern Recognition: 12th International Conference, MLDM 2016, New York, NY, USA, July 16-21, 2016, Proceedings. pp. 58–72. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Algebra universalis.

Blog post


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Assess Long-Term Affordability of Human Exploration Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gjelaj Merturi, E.: The Perceptions of Principal-Based Leadership Practices on Student Reading Achievement, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, R.P.: Interpretive Freedom, (2012)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAlgebra universalis
AbbreviationAlgebra Universalis
ISSN (print)0002-5240
ISSN (online)1420-8911
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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