How to format your references using the Cognitive Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2000). Plastics that conduct win inventors chemistry prize. Nature, 407(6805), 662.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, X., & Xu, J. (2014). Dietary and circulating lycopene and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Scientific Reports, 4, 5031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maffione, M., Morris, A., & Anderson, M. W. (2013). Recognizing detachment-mode seafloor spreading in the deep geological past. Scientific Reports, 3, 2336.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kim, J. Y., Oh, M.-W., Lee, S., Cho, Y. C., Yoon, J.-H., Lee, G. W., … Jeong, S.-Y. (2014). Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag. Scientific Reports, 4, 5450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akers, R. M. (2016). Lactation and the Mammary Gland. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing Company.
An edited book
Muralikrishnan, B. (2009). Computational Surface and Roundness Metrology. (J. Raja, Ed.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Francis, J. J., & Klitzke, C. J. (2010). Dietary Reference Intakes: Cutting Through the Confusion. In T. Wilson, G. A. Bray, N. J. Temple, & M. B. Struble (Eds.), Nutrition Guide for Physicians (pp. 65–70). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 6). Here’s What It Would Look Like If Humans Had Sex Like Other Animals. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Cloud-Seeding Activities Carried Out in the United States Under Programs Supported by the Federal Agencies (No. B-100063). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pasricha, L. A. (2010). North African women in Spain: Dreams and reality, identity and belonging (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2007, December 22). The Tortured Voice of Russia’s Lost Generation. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2000; Li & Xu, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Xu, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Maffione, Morris, & Anderson, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Systems Research
AbbreviationCogn. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-0417
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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