How to format your references using the Cognitive Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Selkoe, D. J. (2003). Folding proteins in fatal ways. Nature, 426(6968), 900–904.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayashi, T., & Carthew, R. W. (2004). Surface mechanics mediate pattern formation in the developing retina. Nature, 431(7009), 647–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doeller, C. F., Barry, C., & Burgess, N. (2010). Evidence for grid cells in a human memory network. Nature, 463(7281), 657–661.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roux, A., Uyhazi, K., Frost, A., & De Camilli, P. (2006). GTP-dependent twisting of dynamin implicates constriction and tension in membrane fission. Nature, 441(7092), 528–531.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hammes, G. G. (2005). Spectroscopy for the Biological Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Andreon, S. (2015). Bayesian Methods for the Physical Sciences: Learning from Examples in Astronomy and Physics (B. Weaver, Ed.; Vol. 4). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, Y., Vitanovski, D., Georgescu, B., Ionasec, R., Voigt, I., Datta, S., Gruner, C., Herzog, B., Biaggi, P., Funka-Lea, G., & Comaniciu, D. (2013). Automatic Detection and Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation on TTE with Application to Assist Mitral Clip Planning and Evaluation. In K. Drechsler, M. Erdt, M. G. Linguraru, C. Oyarzun Laura, K. Sharma, R. Shekhar, & S. Wesarg (Eds.), Clinical Image-Based Procedures. From Planning to Intervention: International Workshop, CLIP 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 33–41). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Systems Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 6). A Shellfish Species Used To Dye Ancient Royal Robes Has Disappeared From The Mediterranean. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Computer Operations and Data Processing Activities at the Social Security Administration (HRD-77-97). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevier, J. (2013). A preventative and treatment substance use program for GLBT adolescents in Long Beach: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., & Fortin, J. (2017, July 27). Kansas Governor to Be Nominated as Ambassador. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Selkoe, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hayashi & Carthew, 2004; Selkoe, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayashi & Carthew, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Doeller et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Roux et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Systems Research
AbbreviationCogn. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-0417
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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