How to format your references using the Cognitive Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Brien, K. (2015). CLIMATE CHANGE. Political agency: The key to tackling climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6265), 1170–1171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baudisch, A., & Vaupel, J. W. (2012). Evolution. Getting to the root of aging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiner, S. L., Sallusto, F., & Lanzavecchia, A. (2007). Division of labor with a workforce of one: challenges in specifying effector and memory T cell fate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 622–625.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wollert, T., Wunder, C., Lippincott-Schwartz, J., & Hurley, J. H. (2009). Membrane scission by the ESCRT-III complex. Nature, 458(7235), 172–177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, W. M. (2012). Fusion Plasma Physics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Wagner, S., Steinmetz, M., Bode, A., & Müller, M. M. (Eds.). (2010). High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering, Garching/Munich 2009: Transactions of the Fourth Joint HLRB and KONWIHR Review and Results Workshop, Dec. 8-9, 2009, Leibniz Supercomputing Centre, Garching/Munich, Germany. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abdulrahman, R., Neagu, D., Holton, D. R. W., Ridley, M., & Lan, Y. (2013). Data Extraction from Online Social Networks Using Application Programming Interface in a Multi Agent System Approach. In N. T. Nguyen (Ed.), Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XI (pp. 88–118). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 4). Brain Training App Could Help Schizophrenia Patients. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Business Systems Modernization: Strategy for Evolving DOD’s Business Enterprise Architecture Offers a Conceptual Approach, but Execution Details Are Needed (GAO-07-451). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ulaganathan, M. N. (2016). Building a volunteered geographic information system (VGIS): A mobile application for disaster management [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 10). Mets Lose Out on a Sweep as Familia and Flores Don’t Have It. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Brien, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Baudisch & Vaupel, 2012; O’Brien, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baudisch & Vaupel, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Reiner et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wollert et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Systems Research
AbbreviationCogn. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-0417
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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