How to format your references using the Cognitive Systems Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognitive Systems Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson, C. M. (2004). Chemical space and biology. Nature, 432(7019), 824–828.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bliss, T., & Schoepfer, R. (2004). Neuroscience. Controlling the ups and downs of synaptic strength. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 973–974.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, K., Hu, Y., & He, J. (2012). Deformation cycles of subduction earthquakes in a viscoelastic Earth. Nature, 484(7394), 327–332.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Todesco, M., Balasubramanian, S., Hu, T. T., Traw, M. B., Horton, M., Epple, P., Kuhns, C., Sureshkumar, S., Schwartz, C., Lanz, C., Laitinen, R. A. E., Huang, Y., Chory, J., Lipka, V., Borevitz, J. O., Dangl, J. L., Bergelson, J., Nordborg, M., & Weigel, D. (2010). Natural allelic variation underlying a major fitness trade-off in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature, 465(7298), 632–636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shi, Y., Liu, M., & Fang, F. (2017). Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schwerdtner Máñez, K., & Poulsen, B. (Eds.). (2016). Perspectives on Oceans Past. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ji, J., & Jin, Q. (2014). Photo-Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for On-Demand Drug Delivery. In A. Prokop, Y. Iwasaki, & A. Harada (Eds.), Intracellular Delivery II: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 93–113). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognitive Systems Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 29). Relax, The Expansion Of The Universe Is Still Accelerating. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Public Transportation: Use of Contractors is Generally Enhancing Transit Project Oversight, and FTA is Taking Actions to Address Some Stakeholder Concerns (GAO-10-909). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moble, B. (2010). Fundamental understanding of the cycloidal-rotor concept for micro air vehicle applications [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 2). No Longer Thinking Uniformly. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dobson, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bliss & Schoepfer, 2004; Dobson, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bliss & Schoepfer, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Todesco et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognitive Systems Research
AbbreviationCogn. Syst. Res.
ISSN (print)1389-0417
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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