How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewin RA. Why rename things? Nature. 2001 Apr 5;410(6829):637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melott AL, Thomas BC. Causes of an ad 774-775 14C increase. Nature. 2012 Nov 29;491(7426):E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fernandes CC, Podos J, Lundberg JG. Amazonian ecology: tributaries enhance the diversity of electric fishes. Science. 2004 Sep 24;305(5692):1960–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Field GD, Gauthier JL, Sher A, Greschner M, Machado TA, Jepson LH, et al. Functional connectivity in the retina at the resolution of photoreceptors. Nature. 2010 Oct 7;467(7316):673–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pilot MJ. Driving Sustainability to Business Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
El-Salhy M. Understanding and Controlling the Irritable Bowel. Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XV, 85 p. 34 illus., 25 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamoudi M, Quesnel Y, Dyment J, Lesur V. Aeromagnetic and Marine Measurements. In: Mandea M, Korte M, editors. Geomagnetic Observations and Models. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 57–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Davis J. FDA Approves First 3D-Printed Drug. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Job Access and Reverse Commute Program: Progress Made in Using Funds and Stakeholder Views on Proposed Program Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 May. Report No.: GAO-11-518.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hernandez I. Strong-DISM: A First Attempt to a Dynamically Typed Assembly Language (D-TAL) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD. In Former F.B.I. Director, Investigation Gains a Leader Known for Independence. New York Times. 2017 May 18;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles