How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schmollinger J. Gaining a lot from translation. Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Knesel KM, Davidson JP. Insights into collisional magmatism from isotopic fingerprints of melting reactions. Science. 2002 Jun 21;296(5576):2206–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Costello C, Gaines SD, Lynham J. Can catch shares prevent fisheries collapse? Science. 2008 Sep 19;321(5896):1678–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, et al. Graphene-based composite materials. Nature. 2006 Jul 20;442(7100):282–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Managing Process Safety Risks During Organizational Change. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Bonate PL, Howard DR, editors. Pharmacokinetics in Drug Development: Advances and Applications, Volume 3. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2011. XII, 319 p. 6 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lee C, Longo V. The Impact of Cancer Treatments on Aging. In: Sierra F, Kohanski R, editors. Advances in Geroscience. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 85–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1.
Hale T. 40,000-Year-Old Raven Bone Carving Suggests Neanderthals Were Artists [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/40000yearold-raven-bone-carving-suggests-neanderthals-were-artists/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jul. Report No.: AA-95-35(3).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Espinoza M. A Latina’s educational attainment and her observations of foster youth’s educational struggles: A narrative [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Pension Crisis in Puerto Rico Fleeces Young. New York Times. 2017 Mar 8;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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