How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heller E. Electrons in the looking glass. Nature. 2000 Feb 3;403(6769):489, 491.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mogk A, Bukau B. Cell biology. When the beginning marks the end. Science. 2010 Feb 19;327(5968):966–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teuten EL, Xu L, Reddy CM. Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products. Science. 2005 Feb 11;307(5711):917–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sharma A, Kapoor P, Gautam A, Chaudhary K, Kumar R, Chauhan JS, et al. Computational approach for designing tumor homing peptides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1607.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta A. Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Cimolini P. Agile Oracle Application Express. Cannell K, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012. XIV, 200 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Raghavendra GS, Prasanna Kumar N. An ACO Framework for Single Track Railway Scheduling Problem. In: Bansal JC, Singh PK, Deep K, Pant M, Nagar AK, editors. Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA 2012): Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India; 2013. p. 39–51. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Global Warming To Expose More People To Zika-Spreading Mosquito Aedes Aegypti [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Industry Operating and Marketing Practices Limit Market Entry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Aug. Report No.: RCED-90-147.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pittsinger RF. The effect of a single bout of surfing on exercise-induced affect [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. Recognizing a Hurdle and Finding Her Voice. New York Times. 2014 Jun 14;A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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