How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geha M. Galaxy formation: Gone with the wind? Nature. 2010 Jan 14;463(7278):167–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karkazis K, Jordan-Young R. Science and society. Debating a testosterone “sex gap.” Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):858–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang C, Chan CT, Hu X. Broadband focusing and collimation of water waves by zero refractive index. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 10;4:6979.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yang W, Liu H, Zhao Y, Inoue A, Jiang K, Huo J, et al. Mechanical properties and structural features of novel Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with unprecedented plasticity. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 29;4:6233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Langton R. Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Dondi R, Fertin G, Mauri G, editors. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 11th International Conference, AAIM 2016, Bergamo, Italy, July 18-20, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIV, 223 p. 36 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 9778).
A chapter in an edited book
Wen L, Luo HZ, Liu GY, Zheng HT. Nanostructured Lithium Titanates (Li4Ti5O12) for Lithium-Ion Batteries. In: Ozoemena KI, Chen S, editors. Nanomaterials in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 127–69. (Nanostructure Science and Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Don’t Hang Up Yet: The Latest Study Linking Mobile Phones To Cancer Has Big Problems. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Partial Report-in-Depth Investigation Into Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974 Aug. Report No.: B-164912.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH. Marx Generator Charged via Biperiodic Resonant Cascaded Transformers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Braffet K. Wonder Women in Manhattan. New York Times. 2016 Apr 17;BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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