How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees MJ. Piecing together the biggest puzzle of all. Science. 2000 Dec 8;290(5498):1919–25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dunham-Snary KJ, Ballinger SW. GENETICS. Mitochondrial-nuclear DNA mismatch matters. Science. 2015 Sep 25;349(6255):1449–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholey JM, Brust-Mascher I, Mogilner A. Cell division. Nature. 2003 Apr 17;422(6933):746–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang Y-N, Hou Y-Y, Sun M-Z, Zhang C-Y, Bai G, Zhao X, et al. Behavioural screening of zebrafish using neuroactive traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions and biological targets. Sci Rep. 2014 Jun 16;4:5311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dorronsoro B, Ruiz P, Danoy G, Pigné Y, Bouvry P. Evolutionary Algorithms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Talbi E-G, Liardet P, Collet P, Lutton E, Schoenauer M, editors. Artificial Evolution: 7th International Conference, Evolution Artificielle, EA 2005, Lille, France, October 26-28, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. XI, 310 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 3871).
A chapter in an edited book
Song J-G, Kim JH, Seo D il, Kim S. Design of a Forecasting Service System for Monitoring of Vulnerabilities of Sensor Networks. In: Kim T-H, Stoica A, Chang R-S, editors. Security-Enriched Urban Computing and Smart Grid: First International Conference, SUComS 2010, Daejeon, Korea, September 15-17, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 34–8. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew E. White Shark Populations Are Growing. Here’s Why That’s Good News [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Science: Status of the Hubble Space Telescope Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: NSIAD-88-118BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhatnagar A. Buckling and weight optimization for non-coupled antisymmetric laminates [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cox R, Hay G. When Numbers Eclipse Message. New York Times. 2011 Aug 2;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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