How to format your references using the Tropical Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walmsley IA. Quantum optics: science and technology in a new light. Science. 2015 May 1;348(6234):525–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenberg MI, Desplan C. Molecular biology. Hiding in plain sight. Science. 2010 Jul 16;329(5989):284–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aldaye FA, Palmer AL, Sleiman HF. Assembling materials with DNA as the guide. Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1795–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dor Y, Brown J, Martinez OI, Melton DA. Adult pancreatic beta-cells are formed by self-duplication rather than stem-cell differentiation. Nature. 2004 May 6;429(6987):41–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rangarao KV, Mallik RK. Digital Signal Processing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Sarkar M. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor. Theuwissen A, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. X, 258 p. (Studies in Computational Intelligence; vol. 461).
A chapter in an edited book
ter Mors M, Drost R, Harmsen F. Project Portfolio Management in Practice. In: Harmsen F, Proper E, Schalkwijk F, Barjis J, Overbeek S, editors. Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation: Second Working Conference, PRET 2010, Delft, The Netherlands, November 11, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 107–26. (Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Andrew D. 8 Genetic Mutations That Can Give You “Superpowers.” IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Bus Safety: Crash Data Trends and Federal and State Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017 Jan. Report No.: GAO-17-209.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turney JJ. Police supervisory attributes that influence attitude towards Critical Incident Stress Management programs [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. With Her Surgeon Watching, Kvitova Shows Off Skilled Handiwork. New York Times. 2017 Jul 3;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Gastroenterology
AbbreviationTrop. Gastroenterol.
ISSN (print)0250-636X
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles