How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Putterman S (2008) A physicist links magnetism, force and fatigue. Nature 454:257
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Waller L, Tian L (2015) Computational imaging: Machine learning for 3D microscopy. Nature 523:416–417
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Wara MW, Ravelo AC, Delaney ML (2005) Permanent El Niño-like conditions during the Pliocene warm period. Science 309:758–761
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Zohar YC, Yochelis S, Dahmen KA, et al (2013) Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays. Sci Rep 3:1845

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Dinet J (2014) Information Retrieval in Digital Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
1.
Frerich S, Meisen T, Richert A, et al (2016) Engineering Education 4.0: Excellent Teaching and Learning in Engineering Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Steigerwald J (2015) The Ethos of Critique in German Idealism. In: Padovani F, Richardson A, Tsou JY (eds) Objectivity in Science: New Perspectives from Science and Technology Studies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 79–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology.

Blog post
1.
Fang J (2014) Why Parrots Have Unusually Large Brains. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/why-parrots-have-unusually-large-brains/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2015) Post-9/11 GI Bill: Additional Actions Needed to Help Reduce Overpayments and Increase Collections. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Murray E (2012) California community college athletic directors lived experience and perceptions about financing issues with athletic programs. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly D (2008) Major Barbara. New York Times BR8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Surgical Oncology
AbbreviationIndian J. Surg. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0975-7651
ISSN (online)0976-6952
ScopeOncology
Surgery

Other styles