How to format your references using the Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heller SB. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth. Science. 2014;346:1219–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Alabugin I, Mohamed RK. Chemistry. A CO₂ cloak for the cyanide dagger. Science. 2014;344:45–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rohr RP, Saavedra S, Bascompte J. Ecological networks. On the structural stability of mutualistic systems. Science. 2014;345:1253497.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Butts DA, Weng C, Jin J, Yeh C-I, Lesica NA, Alonso J-M, et al. Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision. Nature. 2007;449:92–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rooney T. IP Address Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Böhme R, Brenner M, Moore T, Smith M, editors. Financial Cryptography and Data Security: FC 2014 Workshops, BITCOIN and WAHC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 7, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Doicu A, Schuh R, Wriedt T. Scattering by particles on or near a plane surface. In: Kokhanovsky AA, editor. Light Scattering Reviews 3: Light Scattering and Reflection. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 109–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Origins Of Mysterious “Sprite” Lightning Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA Travel: Passenger Aircraft Services Annually Cost Taxpayers Millions More Than Commercial Airlines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Aug. Report No.: GAO-05-818.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Salam S. Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Gregorius and Judge Deliver Major Blows as Yanks Top Mets Again. New York Times. 2017 Aug 17;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
AbbreviationTrop. Dis. Travel Med. Vaccines
ISSN (online)2055-0936

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