How to format your references using the Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sumper M. A phase separation model for the nanopatterning of diatom biosilica. Science. 2002;295:2430–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Finke DL, Snyder WE. Niche partitioning increases resource exploitation by diverse communities. Science. 2008;321:1488–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gong S-S, Zhu W, Sheng DN. Emergent chiral spin liquid: fractional quantum Hall effect in a kagome Heisenberg model. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6317.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Krause AE, Frank KA, Mason DM, Ulanowicz RE, Taylor WW. Compartments revealed in food-web structure. Nature. 2003;426:282–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Woods DR. Successful Trouble Shooting for Process Engineers. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
1. Lieten GK. Child Street Life: An Inside View of Hazards and Expectations of Street Children in Peru. Strehl T, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rezaei G, Kirley M, Pfau J. Evolving Cooperation in the N-player Prisoner’s Dilemma: A Social Network Model. In: Korb K, Randall M, Hendtlass T, editors. Artificial Life: Borrowing from Biology: 4th Australian Conference, ACAL 2009, Melbourne, Australia, December 1-4, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 43–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines.

Blog post
1. Evans K. 2 Tragedies Intersected To Give This Man A Face Transplant — And The Story That Unfolded Is Powerful. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program at Holliston Junior College. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Feb. Report No.: HRD-77-45.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hawkins AJ. Measurement of the spacial distribution of heat exchange in a geothermal analog bedrock site using fiber-otic distributed temperature sensing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. David Sarkisyan, 62, Moscow Preservationist. New York Times. 2010 Jan 20;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
AbbreviationTrop. Dis. Travel Med. Vaccines
ISSN (online)2055-0936

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