How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hustad, P.D. Frontiers in Olefin Polymerization: Reinventing the World’s Most Common Synthetic Polymers. Science 2009, 325, 704–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heo, J.B.; Sung, S. Vernalization-Mediated Epigenetic Silencing by a Long Intronic Noncoding RNA. Science 2011, 331, 76–79.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mace, K.A.; Pearson, J.C.; McGinnis, W. An Epidermal Barrier Wound Repair Pathway in Drosophila Is Mediated by Grainy Head. Science 2005, 308, 381–385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nee, S.; Colegrave, N.; West, S.A.; Grafen, A. The Illusion of Invariant Quantities in Life Histories. Science 2005, 309, 1236–1239.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davies, J. Implementing SSL/TLS Using Cryptography and PKI; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010; ISBN 9781118255797.
An edited book
Layer, E. Signal Transforms in Dynamic Measurements; Tomczyk, K., Ed.; Studies in Systems, Decision and Control; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 16; ISBN 9783319132082.
A chapter in an edited book
Mosteller, F. Who Wrote the Disputed Federalist Papers, Hamilton or Madison? In The Pleasures of Statistics: The Autobiography of Frederick Mosteller; Fienberg, S.E., Hoaglin, D.C., Tanur, J.M., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; pp. 47–67 ISBN 9780387779553.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligence.

Blog post
Fang, J. Birds Camouflage Nests Using Matching Colors (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Information Systems Remain Highly Vulnerable to Fraudulent, Wasteful, Abusive, and Illegal Practices; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Takayama, M. The Development of Writing in Japanese and English of JHL Speakers and the Dynamics of Bilingual Learning. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, C. The Talented Mr. Gilmour. New York Times 2017, BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligence
AbbreviationJ. Intell.
ISSN (online)2079-3200

Other styles