How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ransohoff, R.M. Physiology. Good barriers make good neighbors. Science 2014, 346, 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Katz, A.; Davis, M.E. Molecular imprinting of bulk, microporous silica. Nature 2000, 403, 286–289.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fox, C.G.; Chadwick, W.W., Jr; Embley, R.W. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow. Nature 2001, 412, 727–729.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Salahudeen, A.A.; Thompson, J.W.; Ruiz, J.C.; Ma, H.-W.; Kinch, L.N.; Li, Q.; Grishin, N.V.; Bruick, R.K. An E3 ligase possessing an iron-responsive hemerythrin domain is a regulator of iron homeostasis. Science 2009, 326, 722–726.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mysak, J. Encyclopedia of Municipal Bonds; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118531624.
An edited book
Multimodal Location Estimation of Videos and Images; Choi, J., Friedland, G., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319098609.
A chapter in an edited book
Bollobás, B.; Füredi, Z.; Kantor, I.; Katona, G.O.H.; Leader, I. A coding problem for pairs of subsets. In Geometry, Structure and Randomness in Combinatorics; Matoušek, J., Nešetřil, J., Pellegrini, M., Eds.; Scuola Normale Superiore: Pisa, 2014; pp. 47–59 ISBN 9788876425240.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligence.

Blog post
Davis, J. Impact Glass Detected On Mars Might Contain Organic Matter Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Internet Protocol Transition: FCC Should Strengthen Its Data Collection Efforts to Assess the Transition’s Effects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2015;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Primeaux, S.J. The Role of Education, Empathy, and Psychological Flexibility in Implicit and Explicit Mental Health Stigma. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. For the Self-Employed, a Year-Round System Will Smooth Tax Time. New York Times 2008, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligence
AbbreviationJ. Intell.
ISSN (online)2079-3200

Other styles