How to format your references using the Journal of Intelligence citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intelligence. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orrit, M. Chemistry. The Motions of an Enzyme Soloist. Science 2003, 302, 239–240.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, M.I.; Wilson, R.J. A Topographically Forced Asymmetry in the Martian Circulation and Climate. Nature 2002, 416, 298–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gil, S.; Kott, A.; Barabási, A.-L. A Genetic Epidemiology Approach to Cyber-Security. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5659.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu, P.; Jiang, T.-X.; Suksaweang, S.; Widelitz, R.B.; Chuong, C.-M. Molecular Shaping of the Beak. Science 2004, 305, 1465–1466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noordenbos, G. Recovery from Eating Disorders; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, 2013; ISBN 9781118484937.
An edited book
People, Population Change and Policies: Lessons from the Population Policy Acceptance Study Vol. 2: Demographic Knowledge – Gender – Ageing; Höhn, C., Avramov, D., Kotowska, I.E., Eds.; European Studies of Population; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; Vol. 16/2; ISBN 9781402066108.
A chapter in an edited book
Karasalo, I.; Skogqvist, P. Acoustic Models for Scattering. In Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project; Caiti, A., Ed.; Springer Praxis Books; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 25–30 ISBN 9783540281207.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intelligence.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Amazing Bridges Built For Animals Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joppy, D.A. Principal Socialization in One Virginia School District: A Phenomenological Investigation. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. Review: ‘Carrie Pilby,’ Saved by Bel Powley, Superhero. New York Times 2017, C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intelligence
AbbreviationJ. Intell.
ISSN (online)2079-3200

Other styles