How to format your references using the Trends in Neuroscience and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Neuroscience and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Dalton, Legal row looms for gene-map firm, Nature. 423 (2003) 470.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Vernot, J.M. Akey, Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes, Science. 343 (2014) 1017–1021.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Lü, Z.-K. Zhang, T. Zhou, Deviation of Zipf’s and Heaps’ Laws in human languages with limited dictionary sizes, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Beaumont, R.A. Jamieson, M.H. Nguyen, B. Lee, Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation, Nature. 414 (2001) 738–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.-C. Chow, J.-P. Liu, Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials: Concepts and Methodologies, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
R.C. Zhao, ed., Stem Cells: Basics and Clinical Translation, 1st ed. 2015, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Vashchenko, M. Scholz, Latch-up at System-Level Stress, in: M. Scholz (Ed.), System Level ESD Protection, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 199–245.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Neuroscience and Education.

Blog post
J. Fang, Tiny Parasite Infects Growing Honeybees, Not Just Adults, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.P. Burnias, A qualitative study of familial factors that contribute to a positive coming out process, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, When Loss Means Disappointment, Not Disaster, New York Times. (2010) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Neuroscience and Education
AbbreviationTrends Neurosci. Educ.
ISSN (print)2211-9493
ScopeNeuroscience (miscellaneous)
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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