How to format your references using the Trends in Neuroscience and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Neuroscience and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Grayson, Physics masterclass, Nature. 490 (2012) S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.-Y. Lee, S.C. Jameson, Immunology. Remembering to be tolerant, Science. 335 (2012) 667–668.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.A. Hanna, R.L. Campbell, P.L. Davies, Calcium-bound structure of calpain and its mechanism of inhibition by calpastatin, Nature. 456 (2008) 409–412.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Xiang, S. Meng, J. Wang, S. Li, J. Liu, H. Li, T. Li, W. Song, W. Zhou, Two novel DNA motifs are essential for BACE1 gene transcription, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6864.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Fencott, M. Lockyer, J. Clay, P. Massey, Game Invaders, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
J.P. Davim, ed., Tribology of Nanocomposites, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Kiayias, S. Xu, M. Yung, Privacy Preserving Data Mining within Anonymous Credential Systems, in: R. Ostrovsky, R.D. Prisco, I. Visconti (Eds.), Security and Cryptography for Networks: 6th International Conference, SCN 2008, Amalfi, Italy, September 10-12, 2008. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Neuroscience and Education.

Blog post
J. Fang, Cockatoos Learn How To Make and Use Tools From Each Other, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Observations of the Test of the Simplifed Method for Determining Eligibility of Persons for Adult Public Assistance Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Sindel, Can experiential education strategies improve elementary science teachers’ perceptions of and practices in science teaching?, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico, New York Times. (2012) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Neuroscience and Education
AbbreviationTrends Neurosci. Educ.
ISSN (print)2211-9493
ScopeNeuroscience (miscellaneous)
Behavioral Neuroscience
Cognitive Neuroscience

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