How to format your references using the Trends in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jaffe, H. (2004) Public health. Whatever happened to the U.S. AIDS epidemic? Science 305, 1243–1244
A journal article with 2 authors
Onishi, K.H. and Baillargeon, R. (2005) Do 15-month-old infants understand false beliefs? Science 308, 255–258
A journal article with 3 authors
Thisse, B. et al. (2000) Activin- and Nodal-related factors control antero-posterior patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Nature 403, 425–428
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Burnett, D.L. et al. (2018) Germinal center antibody mutation trajectories are determined by rapid self/foreign discrimination. Science 360, 223–226

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoute, K. (2014) Help, I’m Rich!, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Williams, R.O., III et al., eds. (2012) Formulating Poorly Water Soluble Drugs, (1st edn) , 3Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Horsthemke, B. (2006) Epimutations in Human Disease. In DNA Methylation: Development, Genetic Disease and Cancer (Doerfler, W. and Böhm, P., eds), pp. 45–59, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Immunology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 13-Oct-(2016) , Dinosaurs Couldn’t Sing But Ancient Birds Could Honk. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) FAA’s Voice Switching and Control System, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison, G.K. (2010) , Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. , Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. 09-Feb-(2003) , Check That Label, Jake. I Think It’s Chinatown. , New York Times, 147

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Immunology
AbbreviationTrends Immunol.
ISSN (print)1471-4906
ISSN (online)1471-4981
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles