How to format your references using the Trends in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibney, E. (2014) How to tame the flood of literature. Nature 513, 129–130
A journal article with 2 authors
Kioussis, D. and Georgopoulos, K. (2007) Epigenetic flexibility underlying lineage choices in the adaptive immune system. Science 317, 620–622
A journal article with 3 authors
Ackman, J.B. et al. (2012) Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system. Nature 490, 219–225
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Cebe, P. et al. (2013) Beating the heat--fast scanning melts silk beta sheet crystals. Sci. Rep. 3, 1130

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandler, C. (2010) The Science of ADHD, Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Ostrovsky, R. et al., eds. (2008) Security and Cryptography for Networks: 6th International Conference, SCN 2008, Amalfi, Italy, September 10-12, 2008. Proceedings, 5229Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blum, E.K. and Savitch, W. (2011) The Software Side of Computer Science – Computer Programming. In Computer Science: The Hardware, Software and Heart of It (Blum, E. K. and Aho, A. V., eds), pp. 53–68, Springer

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Immunology.

Blog post
Fang, J. 29-May-(2014) , First Complete Mapping Of Human Proteome Discovers 193 New Proteins. , IFLScience. [Online]. [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Planning and Flexibility Are Key to Effectively Deploying Broadband Conduit through Federal Highway Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cashion, A.T. (2010) , Exploring Dielectric Absorption: Data Collection System Development. , Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 03-Jun-(2012) , For Olympic Contenders, the Prefontaine Serves as a Tuneup and as a Barometer. , New York Times, SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Immunology
AbbreviationTrends Immunol.
ISSN (print)1471-4906
ISSN (online)1471-4981
Immunology and Allergy

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