How to format your references using the Trends in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Danzon, P.M. (2007) At what price? Nature 449, 176–179
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider, R.A. and Helms, J.A. (2003) The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science 299, 565–568
A journal article with 3 authors
Schreiber, R.D. et al. (2011) Cancer immunoediting: integrating immunity’s roles in cancer suppression and promotion. Science 331, 1565–1570
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, M. et al. (2018) Chameleon-like elastomers with molecularly encoded strain-adaptive stiffening and coloration. Science 359, 1509–1513

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pandya, R. (2005) Mobile and Personal Communication Services and Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Korbicz, J. and Kościelny, J.M., eds. (2011) Modeling, Diagnostics and Process Control: Implementation in the DiaSter System, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Oh, S.H. and Lhm, J.T. (2007) CDMA2000 1X & 1X EV-DO. In Enhanced Radio Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Communication (Park, Y. and Adachi, F., eds), pp. 151–190, Springer Netherlands

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Immunology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. 21-Jun-(2016) , How Technology Could Help Predict Terrorist Attacks. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Health Information Technology: Efforts Continue but Comprehensive Privacy Approach Needed for National Strategy, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin, J.C. (2008) , Tbx18 and the epicardium in cardiac development and regenerative medicine. , Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W. 12-Oct-(2015) , Hazing Abuses Mar Asian-American Fraternities. , New York Times, A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Immunology
AbbreviationTrends Immunol.
ISSN (print)1471-4906
ISSN (online)1471-4981
Immunology and Allergy

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