How to format your references using the Trends in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cardinale, B. (2012) Ecology. Impacts of biodiversity loss. Science 336, 552–553
A journal article with 2 authors
Darst, C.R. and Cummings, M.E. (2006) Predator learning favours mimicry of a less-toxic model in poison frogs. Nature 440, 208–211
A journal article with 3 authors
Prescher, J.A. et al. (2004) Chemical remodelling of cell surfaces in living animals. Nature 430, 873–877
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Tateishi, K. et al. (2009) Role of Jhdm2a in regulating metabolic gene expression and obesity resistance. Nature 458, 757–761

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander, M. and Walkenbach, J. (2012) 101 Ready-to-Use Excel® Macros, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Graaf, J. de (2015) ApoB in Clinical Care, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
A chapter in an edited book
Payne-James, J.J. et al. (2011) Injury Assessment, Documentation, and Interpretation. In Clinical Forensic Medicine: A Physician’s Guide (Stark, M. M., ed), pp. 133–167, Humana Press

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 08-Aug-(2015) , New Species Of Anglerfish Discovered. , IFLScience. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018]


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Aviation Safety and Security: Challenges to Implementing the Recommendations of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yu, G. (2013) , Religious/spiritual beliefs and practices of Asian/Asian American mental health professionals & students and the impact on treatment. , Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. 14-Oct-(2006) , Chocolate And a Touch Of Chic. , New York Times, NJ6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Immunology
AbbreviationTrends Immunol.
ISSN (print)1471-4906
ISSN (online)1471-4981
Immunology and Allergy

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