How to format your references using the Fish and Fisheries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fish and Fisheries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jenkins, A. (2004). Graduate journal: a tough challenge. Nature, 427(6972), 378.
A journal article with 2 authors
DellaPenna, D., & O’Connor, S. E. (2012). Plant science. Plant gene clusters and opiates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1648–1649.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eggenschwiler, J. T., Espinoza, E., & Anderson, K. V. (2001). Rab23 is an essential negative regulator of the mouse Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway. Nature, 412(6843), 194–198.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, N., Bao, Z., Zhang, X., Eddy, S. R., & Wessler, S. R. (2004). Pack-MULE transposable elements mediate gene evolution in plants. Nature, 431(7008), 569–573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stirling, E. (2010). Valuing Older People. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Churchill, D., Lu, J., Chiu, T. K. F., & Fox, B. (Eds.). (2016). Mobile Learning Design: Theories and Application. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bial, D., Appelmann, T., Rukzio, E., & Schmidt, A. (2012). Improving Cyclists Training with Tactile Feedback on Feet. In C. Magnusson, D. Szymczak, & S. Brewster (Eds.), Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: 7th International Conference, HAID 2012, Lund, Sweden, August 23-24, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 41–50). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fish and Fisheries.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, June 20). Does Education Give You Brain Cancer? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV (PAD-77-14A). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hussmann, S. (2014). Profiling Drilling Fluid Invasion in Sandstones Using Water Based Muds: Implications for Bridging and Wellbore Strengthening Effects [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman, J. (2014, May 24). Judge Allows Conyers to Be on the Ballot in Michigan. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jenkins, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (DellaPenna & O’Connor, 2012; Jenkins, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DellaPenna & O’Connor, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Eggenschwiler et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFish and Fisheries
AbbreviationFish Fish (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)1467-2960
ISSN (online)1467-2979
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles