How to format your references using the Fish and Fisheries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fish and Fisheries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lakes, R. (2000). MATERIALS SCIENCE: Deformations in Extreme Matter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5473), 1976–1977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruths, J., & Ruths, D. (2014). Control profiles of complex networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6177), 1373–1376.
A journal article with 3 authors
Irvine, W. T. M., Vitelli, V., & Chaikin, P. M. (2010). Pleats in crystals on curved surfaces. Nature, 468(7326), 947–951.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Xu, T., Feng, Y., Peng, H., Guo, D., & Li, T. (2014). Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Scientific Reports, 4, 6982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Todinov, M. T. (2005). Reliability and Risk Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zajda, J., & Daun, H. (Eds.). (2009). Global Values Education: Teaching Democracy and Peace (Vol. 7). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kress, B. (2009). Neurolues. In S. Hähnel (Ed.), Inflammatory Diseases of the Brain (pp. 71–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fish and Fisheries.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, June 6). Measuring The Cost Of Water Collection. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects (GAO-12-207SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton, W. G. (2015). Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, August 14). Municipal Bond Rule Mired in Legislative Limbo. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lakes, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lakes, 2000; Ruths & Ruths, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruths & Ruths, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Irvine et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Xu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFish and Fisheries
AbbreviationFish Fish (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)1467-2960
ISSN (online)1467-2979
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles