How to format your references using the Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Manuelidis, Penny wise, pound foolish-a retrospective, Science. 290 (2000) 2257b.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Xu, Y. Zhang, Ab Initio structure prediction for Escherichia coli: towards genome-wide protein structure modeling and fold assignment, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1895.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.C. Fu, S.A. Raizen, R.J. Shavelson, Education. The nation’s report card: a vision of large-scale science assessment, Science. 326 (2009) 1637–1638.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Egger, T. Kapur, A. Fedorov, S. Pieper, J.V. Miller, H. Veeraraghavan, B. Freisleben, A.J. Golby, C. Nimsky, R. Kikinis, GBM volumetry using the 3D Slicer medical image computing platform, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1364.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Langley-Evans, Nutrition, health and disease, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
K. Kondo, R.N. Akolkar, D.P. Barkey, M. Yokoi, eds., Copper Electrodeposition for Nanofabrication of Electronics Devices, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Dimov, R. Georgieva, V. Todorov, Balancing of Systematic and Stochastic Errors in Monte Carlo Algorithms for Integral Equations, in: I. Dimov, S. Fidanova, I. Lirkov (Eds.), Numerical Methods and Applications: 8th International Conference, NMA 2014, Borovets, Bulgaria, August 20-24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 44–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care.

Blog post
T. Hale, This “Orange Alligator” Has Been Spotted In South Carolina, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Education Funding: Multiple Programs and Lack of Data Raise Efficiency and Effectiveness Concerns, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.A. Wright, Assessing Leadership Behaviors and Demographic Characteristics of Project Managers Associated Through LinkedIn, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Shpigel, Reviving World Cup Hopes Out of Thin Air, New York Times. (2017) D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care
AbbreviationTren. Anaesth. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)2210-8440
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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