How to format your references using the Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.A.D. Evans, Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from evaporite palaeolatitudes, Nature. 444 (2006) 51–55.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Gaudet, S.E. Mango, Regulation of organogenesis by the Caenorhabditis elegans FoxA protein PHA-4, Science. 295 (2002) 821–825.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Esteban, L. Mayoral, D. Ray, Ethnicity and conflict: theory and facts, Science. 336 (2012) 858–865.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A. Frearson, S. Brand, S.P. McElroy, L.A.T. Cleghorn, O. Smid, L. Stojanovski, H.P. Price, M.L.S. Guther, L.S. Torrie, D.A. Robinson, I. Hallyburton, C.P. Mpamhanga, J.A. Brannigan, A.J. Wilkinson, M. Hodgkinson, R. Hui, W. Qiu, O.G. Raimi, D.M.F. van Aalten, R. Brenk, I.H. Gilbert, K.D. Read, A.H. Fairlamb, M.A.J. Ferguson, D.F. Smith, P.G. Wyatt, N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness, Nature. 464 (2010) 728–732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Courant, E.J. McShane, Differential and Integral Calculus, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1988.
An edited book
J. Pitman, Combinatorial Stochastic Processes: Ecole d’Eté de Probabilités de Saint-Flour XXXII – 2002, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Karasu, B. Ola, Endometrioma and Infertility: Principles and Techniques of Management, in: M. Metwally, T.-C. Li (Eds.), Reproductive Surgery in Assisted Conception, Springer, London, 2015: pp. 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care.

Blog post
J. Fang, Using Light to Help Blood Vessels Grow in Living Animals, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges Facing the Agency in Fiscal Year 2009 and Beyond, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Ma, Improving the performance of hyperspectral target detection, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, A New Justice, an Old Plea: More Money for the Bench, New York Times. (2006) 113.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTrends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care
AbbreviationTren. Anaesth. Crit. Care
ISSN (print)2210-8440
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Other styles