How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Microbiology (JCM). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
England J. 2010. Canada needs a polar policy. Nature 463:159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kassiotis G, O’Garra A. 2008. Immunology. Immunity benefits from a little suppression. Science 320:1168–1169.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amin M, Farhat M, Baǧcı H. 2013. A dynamically reconfigurable Fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications. Sci Rep 3:2105.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harvey CD, Yasuda R, Zhong H, Svoboda K. 2008. The spread of Ras activity triggered by activation of a single dendritic spine. Science 321:136–140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss J. 2016. Handbook of Ion Chromatography. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
2011. Detoxification of Heavy Metals. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Scuderi E, Parrinello RE, Izal D, Perrucci GP, Fitzek FHP, Palazzo S, Molinaro A. 2010. A Mobile Platform for Measurements in Dynamic Topology Wireless Networks, p. 49–57. In Giusto, D, Iera, A, Morabito, G, Atzori, L (eds.), The Internet of Things: 20th Tyrrhenian Workshop on Digital Communications. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. I’m An OB-GYN Treating Women With Zika: This Is What It’s Like. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Preliminary Observations on Funding, Oversight, and Investigations and Prosecutions of ACORN or Potentially Related Organizations. GAO-10-648R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini F. 2011. Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McFADDEN RD. 2017. June Foray Is Dead at 99; Voiced Rocky and a Cast Of Animated Characters. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Microbiology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0095-1137
ISSN (online)1098-660X
ScopeMicrobiology (medical)

Other styles