How to format your references using the Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, F.S.: Genome-sequencing anniversary. Faces of the genome. Science. 331, 546 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Friend, S.H., Schadt, E.E.: Translational genomics. Clues from the resilient. Science. 344, 970–972 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Peltier, W.R., Liu, Y., Crowley, J.W.: Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization. Nature. 450, 813–818 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Crook, R., Prance, J., Thomas, K.J., Chorley, S.J., Farrer, I., Ritchie, D.A., Pepper, M., Smith, C.G.: Conductance quantization at a half-integer plateau in a symmetric GaAs quantum wire. Science. 312, 1359–1362 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barkham, R.: Real Estate and Globalisation. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2012)
An edited book
Wallenberger, F.T., Bingham, P.A. eds: Fiberglass and Glass Technology: Energy-Friendly Compositions and Applications. Springer US, Boston, MA (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Rivero, A.E.C.: Multiplicative Structure of the Resolvent Matrix for the Truncated Hausdorff Matrix Moment Problem. In: Alpay, D. and Kirstein, B. (eds.) Interpolation, Schur Functions and Moment Problems II. pp. 193–210. Springer, Basel (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Physicists Record Atomic Event With Trillionth Of A Billionth Of A Second Precision


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Broadband Performance: Additional Actions Could Help FCC Evaluate Its Efforts to Inform Consumers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2015)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wong, A.N.: The model minority at risk: Barriers to mental health access for Chinese Americans, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W.: At Food Co-op, a Rift Over Its Pension Fund, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Infrastructure Geotechnology
ISSN (print)2196-7202
ISSN (online)2196-7210

Other styles