How to format your references using the Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Motani, R.: Scaling effects in caudal fin propulsion and the speed of ichthyosaurs. Nature. 415, 309–312 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Burdon, J.J., Thrall, P.H.: Coevolution of plants and their pathogens in natural habitats. Science. 324, 755–756 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lunshof, J.E., Church, G.M., Prainsack, B.: Information access. Raw personal data: providing access. Science. 343, 373–374 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
McDonald, G.R., Hudson, A.L., Dunn, S.M.J., You, H., Baker, G.B., Whittal, R.M., Martin, J.W., Jha, A., Edmondson, D.E., Holt, A.: Bioactive contaminants leach from disposable laboratory plasticware. Science. 322, 917 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murdoch, I., Turpin, S., Johnston, B., MacLullich, A., Losman, E.: Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Chiu, M.-H., Tuan, H.-L., Wu, H.-K., Lin, J.-W., Chou, C.-C. eds: Chemistry Education and Sustainability in the Global Age. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Tschakert, P., Laliberte, N.: Contaminated Identities: Understanding Human and Environmental Risks and Livelihood Options Among Small-Scale Gold Miners in Ghana. In: Luginaah, I.N. and Yanful, E.K. (eds.) Environment and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Managing an Emerging Crisis: Selected Papers from ERTEP 2007, July 17-19 2007, Ghana, Africa. pp. 65–75. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Ultra, Super, Clean Coal Power? We’ve Heard It Before


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Competition in the Airline Computerized Reservation System Industry. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huang, Y.: Optimal control of heat engines in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr: Witness Lays Out Events Ending in Brazen Killing, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Infrastructure Geotechnology
ISSN (print)2196-7202
ISSN (online)2196-7210

Other styles