How to format your references using the Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, M.G., Jr: Cell biology. Moonlighting in mitochondria. Science. 323, 723–724 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton, R., Abbott, A.: Hawaii reaches for the stars with astronomy master plan. Nature. 405, 872 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Klak, C., Reeves, G., Hedderson, T.: Unmatched tempo of evolution in Southern African semi-desert ice plants. Nature. 427, 63–65 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Comin, C.H., Santos, J.R., Corradini, D., Morrison, W., Curme, C., Rosene, D.L., Gabrielli, A., Costa, L. da F., Stanley, H.E.: Statistical physics approach to quantifying differences in myelinated nerve fibers. Sci. Rep. 4, 4511 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mittleman, A.L.: A Short History of Jewish Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Ghafar-Zadeh, E.: CMOS Capacitive Sensors for Lab-on-Chip Applications: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Le Grand, G., Barrau, E.: Prior Checking, a Forerunner to Privacy Impact Assessments. In: Wright, D. and Hert, P.D. (eds.) Privacy Impact Assessment. pp. 97–116. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: New Species Of Marsupial Has Sex Until It Dies,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Ways of Increasing Productivity in the Maintenance of Commercial-Type Vehicles. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1975)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klooster, E.C.-R.: Identifying differences in student traditionalities of remedial math students, adjusted for efficacy, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Those Chicken Georges And What They Mean, (1992)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Infrastructure Geotechnology
ISSN (print)2196-7202
ISSN (online)2196-7210

Other styles