How to format your references using the Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huxley, A.F.: Obituary: David Keynes Hill (1915-2002). Nature. 419, 800 (2002)
A journal article with 2 authors
Pellettieri, J., Seydoux, G.: Anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila--PARallels and differences. Science. 298, 1946–1950 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Burkett, V., Groat, C.G., Reed, D.: Hurricanes not the key to a sustainable coast. Science. 315, 1366–1368 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Farquhar, J., Savarino, J., Jackson, T.L., Thiemens, M.H.: Evidence of atmospheric sulphur in the martian regolith from sulphur isotopes in meteorites. Nature. 404, 50–52 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matignon, R.: Data Mining Using SAS® Enterprise MinerTM. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2007)
An edited book
Cohen, R.: GUI Design for Android Apps. Apress, Berkeley, CA (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Bacon, S.: The Expectational Body: The Becoming of the Tortured Vampire Horde in Daybreakers. In: de Valk, M. (ed.) Screening the Tortured Body: The Cinema as Scaffold. pp. 71–88. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Bacteria Can Make Zero-Viscosity Superfluids


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Procurement Assessments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vernold, E.L.: Special education teacher resiliency: What keeps teachers in the field?, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, K.: The Future Comes to a Place That Hasn’t Always Had One, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Infrastructure Geotechnology
ISSN (print)2196-7202
ISSN (online)2196-7210

Other styles