How to format your references using the Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haberland, H.: Looking from both sides. Nature. 494, E1-2 (2013)
A journal article with 2 authors
Julius, D., Basbaum, A.I.: Molecular mechanisms of nociception. Nature. 413, 203–210 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mossinger, J., White, M., Goymer, P.: Coastal regions. Nature. 504, 35 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Uji, S., Shinagawa, H., Terashima, T., Yakabe, T., Terai, Y., Tokumoto, M., Kobayashi, A., Tanaka, H., Kobayashi, H.: Magnetic-field-induced superconductivity in a two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature. 410, 908–910 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labadie, N., Prins, C., Prodhon, C.: Metaheuristics for Vehicle Routing Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
de Valk, M. ed: Screening the Tortured Body: The Cinema as Scaffold. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Catena, di L.M.: Biografie. In: Davoli, I. (ed.) Oltre i materiali. La scienza tra le nostre dita: Quaranta storie di lavoro e formazione. pp. 35–204. Springer, Milano (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Cracked It! A 30-Year Cold Case Involving An Egg And The Mysterious Night Parrot,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: National Airspace System: FAA Reauthorization Issues are Critical to System Transformation and Operations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2009)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viramontes, M.: Parenting styles and practices and their impact on school behavior, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B.: A Giants Rookie Casts a Thoughtful Eye on the World, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransportation Infrastructure Geotechnology
ISSN (print)2196-7202
ISSN (online)2196-7210

Other styles