How to format your references using the Transplantation Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transplantation Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Lane, Science innovation. Assessing the impact of science funding, Science. 324 (2009) 1273–1275.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.S. Green, D. Bavelier, Action video game modifies visual selective attention, Nature. 423 (2003) 534–537.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.N. Krasnoshchekov, P.B. Kaazik, V.M. Ovtchinnikov, Seismological evidence for mosaic structure of the surface of the Earth’s inner core, Nature. 435 (2005) 483–487.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Meng, Y. Zhang, X. Wan, C. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Ke, Z. Xiao, L. Ding, R. Xia, H.-L. Yip, Y. Cao, Y. Chen, Organic and solution-processed tandem solar cells with 17.3% efficiency, Science. 361 (2018) 1094–1098.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D. Burnham, O.M. Skilleås, The Aesthetics of Wine, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2012.
An edited book
C.C. Kaeding, J.R. Borchers, eds., Hamstring and Quadriceps Injuries in Athletes: A Clinical Guide, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. La Rosa, A. Fiannaca, R. Rizzo, A. Urso, Genomic Sequence Classification Using Probabilistic Topic Modeling, in: E. Formenti, R. Tagliaferri, E. Wit (Eds.), Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics: 10th International Meeting, CIBB 2013, Nice, France, June 20-22, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transplantation Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Living With Complexity: Evolution, Ecology, Viruses And Climate Change, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Examples of Job Hopping by Commercial Drivers After Failing Drug Tests, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.E. Gonzalez, Ideal leadership practices in Head Start: Understanding leadership from the perspectives of directors and teachers, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Landler, G. Harris, In Retaliation, U.S. Tells Russia to Shut Consulate And 2 Diplomatic Offices, New York Times. (2017) A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTransplantation Reports
ISSN (print)2451-9596

Other styles