How to format your references using the Challenges citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Challenges. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Willyard, C. Tiny steps towards an HIV vaccine. Nature 2010, 466, S8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Halliday, A.N.; Wood, B.J. Geophysics. How did Earth accrete? Science 2009, 325, 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Totan, Y.; Güler, E.; Dervişoğulları, M.S. Brilliant Blue G assisted epiretinal membrane surgery. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3956.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Henry, L.-A.; Vad, J.; Findlay, H.S.; Murillo, J.; Milligan, R.; Roberts, J.M. Environmental variability and biodiversity of megabenthos on the Hebrides Terrace Seamount (Northeast Atlantic). Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5589.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chan, E.P. Algorithmic Trading; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118676998.
An edited book
1.
Mario, H. Integrated Computer-Aided Design in Automotive Development: Development Processes, Geometric Fundamentals, Methods of CAD, Knowledge-Based Engineering Data Management; Dietrich, W., Gfrerrer, A., Lang, J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642119392.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lee, H.H.; Chang, E.-C.; Chan, M.C. Pervasive Random Beacon in the Internet for Covert Coordination. In Information Hiding: 7th International Workshop, IH 2005, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-8, 2005. Revised Selected Papers; Barni, M., Herrera-Joancomartí, J., Katzenbeisser, S., Pérez-González, F., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 53–61 ISBN 9783540290391.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Challenges.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E. Major California Faults Ready To Rupture Available online: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/major-california-faults-ready-to-rupture/ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office Federal Vehicle Collisions and Aftermarket Collision Avoidance Technologies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Harper, N.R. The Relationship between Worry Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and True Memory, False Memory, and Metamemory. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Harmon, A.; Fountain, H. For Scientists, a Political Test. New York Times 2017, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChallenges
ISSN (online)2078-1547
Scope

Other styles