How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Stone R. U.S.-RUSSIA TIES: Spy Conviction Strains Science Collaborations. Science. 2000;290(5499):2043-2045.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Schultz RM, Williams CJ. The science of ART. Science. 2002;296(5576):2188-2190.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
ffrench-Constant C, Colognato H, Franklin RJM. Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science. 2004;304(5671):688-689.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Leishman AJ, Naidenko OV, Attinger A, et al. T cell responses modulated through interaction between CD8alphaalpha and the nonclassical MHC class I molecule, TL. Science. 2001;294(5548):1936-1939.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Kindmann R, Krüger U. Stahlbau. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Wismath S, Wolff A, eds. Graph Drawing: 21st International Symposium, GD 2013, Bordeaux, France, September 23-25, 2013, Revised Selected Papers. Vol 8242. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Selouani S-A. “Well Adjusted”: Using Robust and Flexible Speech Recognition Capabilities in Clean to Noisy Mobile Environments. In: Neustein A, ed. Advances in Speech Recognition: Mobile Environments, Call Centers and Clinics. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010:91-112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Education.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. This Tree Can Grow Over 40 Different Kinds Of Fruit. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/mysterious-tree-can-grow-over-40-different-kinds-fruit/. Published July 22, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle Accident: NASA’s Actions To Address the Presidential Commission Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Policarpio AM. Interventions for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, typically developing siblings, and parents: A systematic review of the literature. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pilon M. I.O.C. Opens Inquiry Into Resale Of Tickets. New York Times. June 18, 2012:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Education
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Educ.
ISSN (print)1931-7204
ScopeSurgery
Education

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