How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith CL. How the LHC came to be. Nature. 2007;448(7151):281-284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee SSJ, Mudaliar A. Medicine. Racing forward: the Genomics and Personalized Medicine Act. Science. 2009;323(5912):342.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schuler B, Lipman EA, Eaton WA. Probing the free-energy surface for protein folding with single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. Nature. 2002;419(6908):743-747.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Decker RB, Krimigis SM, Roelof EC, et al. Voyager 1 in the foreshock, termination shock, and heliosheath. Science. 2005;309(5743):2020-2024.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wempen F. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 Bible. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Peterson GW, Bush KR, eds. Handbook of Marriage and the Family. 3rd ed. 2013. Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Moreno-García A. Debridement, Joint Lavage and Cartilage Shaving. In: Rodrìguez-Merchán EC, ed. Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer; 2012:43-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Education.

Blog post
Hale T. A Chinese Doctor Is Now Planning A Human Head Transplant. IFLScience. Published June 13, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB Leadership Critical to Making Needed Enterprise Architecture and E-Government Progress. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lama N. Optimized Veterinary Thermographic Image Classification Using Support Vector Machines and Noise Mitigation. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B. Diamonds (and Other Gems) That Are Forever. New York Times. October 25, 2016:D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Education
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Educ.
ISSN (print)1931-7204

Other styles