How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Ohnaka M. Geophysics. Rupture in the laboratory. Science. 2004;303(5665):1788-1789.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Srygley RB, Thomas ALR. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies. Nature. 2002;420(6916):660-664.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Olff H, Ritchie ME, Prins HHT. Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature. 2002;415(6874):901-904.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Barbero F, Thomas JA, Bonelli S, Balletto E, Schönrogge K. Queen ants make distinctive sounds that are mimicked by a butterfly social parasite. Science. 2009;323(5915):782-785.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lee YS. Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1.
From PJ. Vehicle-Manipulator Systems: Modeling for Simulation, Analysis, and Control. (Gravdahl JT, Pettersen KY, eds.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Li C, Xu L, Ye F, Chen J. An Adaptive Error Concealment Algorithm Based on Partition Model. In: Tan T, Wang G, Wang S, et al., eds. Advances in Image and Graphics Technologies: 11th Chinese Conference, IGTA 2016, Beijing, China, July 8-9, 2016, Proceedings. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer; 2016:35-43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Education.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Man Dies Swimming In The Ocean After Ignoring Post-Tattoo Advice. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Federal Vehicle Collisions and Aftermarket Collision Avoidance Technologies. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Iwuagwu CI. Preventing the Spread of HIV Among Homeless Youth in California. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Saslow L. Long Island Weekend: A 48-Hour Treadmill of Activity -- Saturday. New York Times. November 19, 2006:14LI12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Education
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Educ.
ISSN (print)1931-7204
ScopeSurgery
Education

Other styles