How to format your references using the Journal of Surgical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Surgical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hubler GK. Fluff balls of fire. Nature. 2000;403(6769):487-488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trembleau L, Rebek J Jr. Helical conformation of alkanes in a hydrophobic cavitand. Science. 2003;301(5637):1219-1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peiris JSM, Poon LLM, Guan Y. Public health. Surveillance of animal influenza for pandemic preparedness. Science. 2012;335(6073):1173-1174.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shalizi A, Gaudillière B, Yuan Z, et al. A calcium-regulated MEF2 sumoylation switch controls postsynaptic differentiation. Science. 2006;311(5763):1012-1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vacca JR. Optical Networking Best Practices Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Yang CC, Chau M, Wang J-H, Chen H, eds. Security Informatics. Vol 9. Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Spengel C, Zöllkau Y. D. Results. In: Spengel C, Zöllkau Y, eds. Common Corporate Tax Base (CC(C)TB) and Determination of Taxable Income: An International Comparison. Springer; 2012:85-98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Surgical Education.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Gravitational Wave Observatories Ready To Start Hunting Again After Upgrade. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Competition: Higher Fares and Reduced Competition at Concentrated Airports. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black AM. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ohio Statewide Agricultural Leadership Program. Published online 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russian Leaders Attend Patriarch’s Funeral. New York Times. December 10, 2008:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Surgical Education
AbbreviationJ. Surg. Educ.
ISSN (print)1931-7204

Other styles