How to format your references using the Translational Behavioral Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Behavioral Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G. (2002). Keeping up appearances. Nature, 419(6906), 419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Korber, B., & Gnanakaran, S. (2011). AIDS/HIV. Converging on an HIV vaccine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6049), 1589–1590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, T.-H., Bhunia, S., & Mehregany, M. (2010). Electromechanical computing at 500 degrees C with silicon carbide. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5997), 1316–1318.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Makarova, T. L., Sundqvist, B., Höhne, R., Esquinazi, P., Kopelevich, Y., Scharff, P., … Rakhmanina, A. V. (2001). Magnetic carbon. Nature, 413(6857), 716–718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiesmann, U., Choi, I. S., & Dombrowski, E.-M. (2006). Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Deer, T. R., Leong, M. S., & Gordin, V. (Eds.). (2015). Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical Approaches: the AMERICAN ACADEMY of PAIN MEDICINE Textbook on Patient Management. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hazzan, O., & Dubinsky, Y. (2014). Change. In Y. Dubinsky (Ed.), Agile Anywhere: Essays on Agile Projects and Beyond (pp. 15–20). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Behavioral Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 6). Why Do Europeans Have White Skin? IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Department of Transportation: Enhancing Policy and Program Effectiveness Through Improved Management (No. RCED-87-3S). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nauman, T. (2009). Digital soil-landscape classification for soil survey using ASTER satellite and digital elevation data in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, March 30). Film Series. New York Times, p. C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Behavioral Medicine
AbbreviationTransl. Behav. Med.
ISSN (print)1869-6716
ISSN (online)1613-9860
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Applied Psychology

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