How to format your references using the Translational Behavioral Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Translational Behavioral Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hay, S. (2013). Football fever could be a dose of dengue. Nature, 503(7477), 439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohman, M. D., & Hirche, H. J. (2001). Density-dependent mortality in an oceanic copepod population. Nature, 412(6847), 638–641.
A journal article with 3 authors
Watanabe, Y., Martini, J. E., & Ohmoto, H. (2000). Geochemical evidence for terrestrial ecosystems 2.6 billion years ago. Nature, 408(6812), 574–578.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kambris, Z., Cook, P. E., Phuc, H. K., & Sinkins, S. P. (2009). Immune activation by life-shortening Wolbachia and reduced filarial competence in mosquitoes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5949), 134–136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Albright, R. D. (2013). Death of the Chesapeake. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
DeMello, W. C., & Frohlich, E. D. (Eds.). (2010). Renin Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarin, S., & Dholakia, N. (2016). Higher Education in India at a Crossroads: The Imperative for Transcending Stagnation and Embracing Innovation. In R. V. Turcan, J. E. Reilly, & L. Bugaian (Eds.), (Re)Discovering University Autonomy: The Global Market Paradox of Stakeholder and Educational Values in Higher Education (pp. 55–72). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Translational Behavioral Medicine.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, January 19). Vast Galactic Collisions Create Dark Matter Laboratory. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Need To Reexamine JTIDS Requirements and Architecture (No. MASAD-82-28). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gade, S. (2017). Design and Implementation of Hybrid Hyperchaotic Sequences for Chaos-Based Communication Systems (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2011, November 17). Audit Finds Errors in Calculating Pensions in Bankruptcies. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTranslational Behavioral Medicine
AbbreviationTransl. Behav. Med.
ISSN (print)1869-6716
ISSN (online)1613-9860
ScopeBehavioral Neuroscience
Applied Psychology

Other styles