How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Fisheries Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simpson, F. 2001. Resistance to mantle flow inferred from the electromagnetic strike of the Australian upper mantle. Nature 412(6847):632–635.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akbalik, G., and E. M. Schuman. 2014. Molecular biology. mRNA, live and unmasked. Science (New York, N.Y.) 343(6169):375–376.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrew, T. L., H.-Y. Tsai, and R. Menon. 2009. Confining light to deep subwavelength dimensions to enable optical nanopatterning. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5929):917–921.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ray, B., M. Henaff, S. Ma, E. Efstathiadis, E. R. Peskin, M. Picone, T. Poli, C. F. Aliferis, and A. Statnikov. 2014. Information content and analysis methods for multi-modal high-throughput biomedical data. Scientific reports 4:4411.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carver, R. H., and K.-C. Tai. 2005. Modern Multithreading. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cao, L., editor. 2009. Data Mining and Multi-agent Integration. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hunton, J. 2015. Spaces of Projection Method Patterns and their Cohomology. Pages 105–135 in J. Kellendonk, D. Lenz, and J. Savinien, editors. Mathematics of Aperiodic Order. Springer, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015, September 29. After The Supermoon, Comes The Supertide. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Teenage Prostitution and Child Pornography. U.S. Government Printing Office, 118734, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aiken, J. 2009. Virtually a leader: Mitigating process losses through shared team states. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010, December 29. Truth Lurks In Spoof Of Singletary. New York Times:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simpson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson 2001; Akbalik and Schuman 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Akbalik and Schuman 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ray et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Fisheries Society
AbbreviationTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.
ISSN (print)0002-8487
ISSN (online)1548-8659
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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