How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Fisheries Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodman, S. 2005. The familial balancing act. Nature 433(7025):552–553.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heldin, C. H., and J. Ericsson. 2001. Signal transduction. RIPping tyrosine kinase receptors apart. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5549):2111–2113.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pickrell, J. K., Y. Gilad, and J. K. Pritchard. 2012. Comment on “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335(6074):1302; author reply 1302.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oulton, R. F., V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang. 2009. Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale. Nature 461(7264):629–632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant, R., and E. J. McShane. 1988. Differential and Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chadwick, D., and G. Zhao, editors. 2005. Public Key Infrastructure: Second European PKI Workshop: Research and Applications, EuroPKI 2005, Canterbury, UK, June 30 - July 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Marsaudon, S., C. Bernard, D. Dietzel, C. V. Nguyen, A. M. Bonnot, J.-P. Aimé, and R. Boisgard. 2008. Carbon Nanotubes as SPM Tips: Mechanical Properties of Nanotube Tips and Imaging. Pages 137–181 in B. Bhushan, H. Fuchs, and M. Tomitori, editors. Applied Scanning Probe Methods VIII: Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2015, September 4. Sad But Adorable Animal Facts That Will Ruin Your Day. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 4. U.S. Government Printing Office, 144050, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cayo, P. 2017. A Shifting Bottleneck Procedure with Multiple Objectives in a Complex Manufacturing Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. 2016, September 14. The Mets Blow a Lead, but a Hunch Pays Off. New York Times:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodman 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Heldin and Ericsson 2001; Goodman 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heldin and Ericsson 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Oulton et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Fisheries Society
AbbreviationTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.
ISSN (print)0002-8487
ISSN (online)1548-8659
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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