How to format your references using the Transactions of the American Fisheries Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raichle, M. E. 2006. Neuroscience. The brain’s dark energy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 314(5803):1249–1250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, B. P., and A. L. Cowie. 2014. Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Scientific reports 4:3687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sasaki, T., Y. Yamamoto, and M. Koashi. 2014. Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance. Nature 509(7501):475–478.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhai, R. G., F. Zhang, P. R. Hiesinger, Y. Cao, C. M. Haueter, and H. J. Bellen. 2008. NAD synthase NMNAT acts as a chaperone to protect against neurodegeneration. Nature 452(7189):887–891.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison, M. 2011. Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hodler, J., C. L. Zollikofer, and G. K. von Schulthess, editors. 2005. Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Techniques. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Tirri, H. 2006. Challenges of Urban Sensing. Pages 5–5 in J. Fürnkranz, T. Scheffer, and M. Spiliopoulou, editors. Knowledge Discovery in Databases: PKDD 2006: 10th European Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases Berlin, Germany, September 18-22, 2006 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2015, October 5. Long-Term Study Shows What’s Happening To Wildlife Around Chernobyl. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Student Financial Aid: Data Not Fully Utilized to Identify Inappropriately Awarded Loans and Grants. U.S. Government Printing Office, HEHS-95-89, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhang, Y. 2017. Toward a Molecular Mechanism of Phase Separation in Disordered Elastin-Like Proteins. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. 2017, October 3. With a Little Help From His Friends. New York Times:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raichle 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Raichle 2006; Singh and Cowie 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Cowie 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhai et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleTransactions of the American Fisheries Society
AbbreviationTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.
ISSN (print)0002-8487
ISSN (online)1548-8659
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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