How to format your references using the Toxicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thornton, J.M., 2001. From genome to function. Science 292, 2095–2097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leung, C.T., Brugge, J.S., 2012. Outgrowth of single oncogene-expressing cells from suppressive epithelial environments. Nature 482, 410–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sansom, R.S., Gabbott, S.E., Purnell, M.A., 2010. Non-random decay of chordate characters causes bias in fossil interpretation. Nature 463, 797–800.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ye, K., Aghdasi, B., Luo, H.R., Moriarity, J.L., Wu, F.Y., Hong, J.J., Hurt, K.J., Bae, S.S., Suh, P.-G., Snyder, S.H., 2002. Phospholipase C gamma 1 is a physiological guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the nuclear GTPase PIKE. Nature 415, 541–544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood, B.G., 2013. Wealth Exposed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Böckle, G., Wiese, G. (Eds.), 2014. Computations with Modular Forms: Proceedings of a Summer School and Conference, Heidelberg, August/September 2011, Contributions in Mathematical and Computational Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Bloembergen, M., Eickhoff, M., 2015. Save Borobudur! The Moral Dynamics of Heritage Formation in Indonesia across Orders and Borders, 1930s–1980s, in: Falser, M. (Ed.), Cultural Heritage as Civilizing Mission: From Decay to Recovery, Transcultural Research – Heidelberg Studies on Asia and Europe in a Global Context. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 83–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Synthetic magnetic monopoles have been created in the lab [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Aviation Safety: Preliminary Information on Aircraft Icing and Winter Operations (No. GAO-10-441T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Julfayan-Gregorian, V., 2017. Success Strategies of First-Generation Foreign-Born Leaders (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Southall, A., 2016. Brownsville Residents Seek Answers After a Mentally Ill Ex-Convict Is Fatally Shot. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thornton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Leung and Brugge, 2012; Thornton, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leung and Brugge, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ye et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon
ISSN (print)0041-0101

Other styles