How to format your references using the Toxicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams, J., 2012. Collaborations: The rise of research networks. Nature 490, 335–336.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krüger, F., Ohrnberger, M., 2005. Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance. Nature 435, 937–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velikov, V., Borick, S., Angell, C.A., 2001. The glass transition of water, based on hyperquenching experiments. Science 294, 2335–2338.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alewell, C., Manderscheid, B., Meesenburg, H., Bittersohl, J., 2000. Is acidification still an ecological threat? Nature 407, 856–7; discussion 857-8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McEvily, A.J., 2013. Metal Failures. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zeitler, P.S., Nadeau, K.J. (Eds.), 2008. Insulin Resistance: Childhood Precursors and Adult Disease, Contemporary Endocrinology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiek, Y., 2016. Compossibility and Co-possibility, in: Brown, G., Chiek, Y. (Eds.), Leibniz on Compossibility and Possible Worlds, The New Synthese Historical Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 91–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Cassini Snaps Images Of Weird “Ravioli Moon” Pan Orbiting Saturn [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Comments on JTPA Bills (No. HRD-92-35R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarroll, M.L., 2005. Exercise and Airway Clearing Devices in Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cowley, S., 2016. Fake Accounts at Wells Fargo Raised Alarms Starting in 2005. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adams, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Adams, 2012; Krüger and Ohrnberger, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krüger and Ohrnberger, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Alewell et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon
ISSN (print)0041-0101

Other styles