How to format your references using the Toxicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Donath, J., 2007. Computer science. Virtually trustworthy. Science 317, 53–54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kieffer, S.W., Jakosky, B.M., 2008. Planetary science. Enceladus--oasis or ice ball? Science 320, 1432–1433.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chatterjee, A., Mitrović, M., Fortunato, S., 2013. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Philippa, B., Stolterfoht, M., Burn, P.L., Juška, G., Meredith, P., White, R.D., Pivrikas, A., 2014. The impact of hot charge carrier mobility on photocurrent losses in polymer-based solar cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 5695.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merrills, J., Fisher, J., 2008. Pharmacy Law and Practice. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Yang, D., 2013. The Hardy Space H1 with Non-doubling Measures and Their Applications, Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rudolph, J.L., 2011. Delirium After Cardiac Surgery, in: Katlic, M.R. (Ed.), Cardiothoracic Surgery in the Elderly: Evidence-Based Practice. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 57–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. How Does A Computer Know Where You’re Looking? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain (No. GAO-06-675). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grefe, S.E., 2013. Plasmonic and topological insulator nanostructures and metamaterials nanoscale near-field investigations: Experiment and theory (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Villarosa, L., 2006. Done Right, Colonoscopy Takes Time, Study Finds. New York Times F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Donath, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Donath, 2007; Kieffer and Jakosky, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kieffer and Jakosky, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Philippa et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon
ISSN (print)0041-0101

Other styles