How to format your references using the Toxicon citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicon. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFiggans, G., 2005. Atmospheric science: marine aerosols and iodine emissions. Nature 433, E13; discussion E13-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morata, G., Struhl, G., 2014. Developmental biology: Tethered wings. Nature 505, 162–163.
A journal article with 3 authors
Junge, W., Sielaff, H., Engelbrecht, S., 2009. Torque generation and elastic power transmission in the rotary F(O)F(1)-ATPase. Nature 459, 364–370.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, S.Q., Song, L.S., Lakatta, E.G., Cheng, H., 2001. Ca2+ signalling between single L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in heart cells. Nature 410, 592–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollins, C., 2012. Basic Guide to Anatomy and Physiology for Dental Care Professionals. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
Dershowitz, N., Nissan, E. (Eds.), 2014. Language, Culture, Computation. Computing of the Humanities, Law, and Narratives: Essays Dedicated to Yaacov Choueka on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Marcus, D.A., Bain, P.A., 2009. Acute Treatment Options for the Lactating Headache Patient, in: Marcus, D. (Ed.), Effective Migraine Treatment in Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Practical Guide. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 101–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicon.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Mental Health Is A Complex, Interactive Dance Of Nature And Nurture [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Need for More Effective Management of Transportation Data Systems (No. LCD-75-205). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stahl-Kovell, D.W., 2014. Reimagining red power: Native American community, activism, and academics in postwar America (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2013. At These Screenings, the Writers Get the Applause. New York Times A25B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McFiggans, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (McFiggans, 2005; Morata and Struhl, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morata and Struhl, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicon
ISSN (print)0041-0101

Other styles