How to format your references using the Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyon, B. E. (2003). Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism. Nature, 422(6931), 495–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whetten, R. L., & Price, R. C. (2007). Chemistry. Nano-golden order. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849), 407–408.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howell, K., White, J. G., & Hobert, O. (2015). Spatiotemporal control of a novel synaptic organizer molecule. Nature, 523(7558), 83–87.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stewart, M. D., Jr, Yin, A., Xu, J. M., & Valles, J. M., Jr. (2007). Superconducting pair correlations in an amorphous insulating nanohoneycomb film. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5854), 1273–1275.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lane, D. (2011). The Chief Information Officer’s Body of Knowledge. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lalanne, D., & Kohlas, J. (Eds.). (2009). Human Machine Interaction: Research Results of the MMI Program (Vol. 5440). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Assali, A. A., Lenne, D., & Debray, B. (2010). Heterogeneity in Ontological CBR Systems. In S. Montani & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications - I (pp. 97–116). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, November 11). Cannabinoids May Cause Memory Loss By Depriving Brain Cells Of Energy, According To Study. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1969). Administration of Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (No. 092686). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan, A. (2017). The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. (2008, September 25). How Powerful Is Your Workout? New York Times, p. G9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lyon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Lyon 2003; Whetten and Price 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whetten and Price 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Stewart et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultidimensional Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMultidimens. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0923-6082
ISSN (online)1573-0824
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics

Other styles