How to format your references using the Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). Visions of Europe’s future. Nature, 421(6922), 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dominé, F., & Shepson, P. B. (2002). Air-snow interactions and atmospheric chemistry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5586), 1506–1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, S. M., Malik, H. S., & Emerman, M. (2007). Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5832), 1756–1758.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yildiz, A., Tomishige, M., Vale, R. D., & Selvin, P. R. (2004). Kinesin walks hand-over-hand. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5658), 676–678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park, S., & Guille-Escuret, G. (2017). Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Aneva, B., & Kouteva-Guentcheva, M. (Eds.). (2015). Nonlinear Mathematical Physics and Natural Hazards: Selected Papers from the International School and Workshop held in Sofia, Bulgaria, 28 November – 02 December, 2013 (Vol. 163). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chang, B. Y. P., & Ajjan, R. (2015). A Complicated Case of Thyroid Eye Disease. In R. Ajjan & S. M. Orme (Eds.), Endocrinology and Diabetes: Case Studies, Questions and Commentaries (pp. 31–36). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 27). 139 New Species Discovered In Mekong, Including Thorny Tree Frog And “Dementor” Wasp. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Leasing Office Space: FAA’s Denver Solicitation May Have Unduly Restricted Competition (No. GGD-88-72BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, K. M. (2017). A Phenomenological Study of How Biblical Spiritual Disciplines Influence Women’s Character and Leadership Practices in Christian Faith-based Institutions in Higher Education in North America (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1998, June 28). Keeping Outsiders Outside. New York Times, p. 149.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Dominé and Shepson 2002; Smaglik 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dominé and Shepson 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Yildiz et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultidimensional Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMultidimens. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0923-6082
ISSN (online)1573-0824
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics

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