How to format your references using the Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brenner, S. (2014). Retrospective. Frederick Sanger (1918-2013). Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6168), 262.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beasley, A. J., & Schreier, E. J. (2012). Astronomy: The United States must rejoin the SKA. Nature, 489(7416), 363.
A journal article with 3 authors
Devine, J. A., Baker, K. D., & Haedrich, R. L. (2006). Fisheries: deep-sea fishes qualify as endangered. Nature, 439(7072), 29.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Floyd, J. S., Mutter, J. C., Goodliffe, A. M., & Taylor, B. (2001). Evidence for fault weakness and fluid flow within an active low-angle normal fault. Nature, 411(6839), 779–783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berthou, P., Baudoin, C., Gayraud, T., & Gineste, M. (2015). Satellite and Terrestrial Hybrid Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jensen, F. B. (2011). Computational Ocean Acoustics. (W. A. Kuperman, M. B. Porter, & H. Schmidt, Eds.) (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Callard, F. (2016). Daydream Archive. In F. Callard, K. Staines, & J. Wilkes (Eds.), The Restless Compendium: Interdisciplinary Investigations of Rest and Its Opposites (pp. 35–41). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, May 26). Morgan Freeman’s Voice on Helium. IFLScience. IFLScience.’s-voice-helium/. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Vocational Education: Changes at High School Level After Amendments to Perkins Act (No. HEHS-95-144). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Melhorn, S. J. (2009). The microstructure of food intake under conditions of high-fat diet, social stress and social subordination (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GEORGE GENE GUSTINES; Compiled by RACHEL LEE HARRIS. (2010, October 4). Comic Strips Think Pink. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brenner 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Beasley and Schreier 2012; Brenner 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beasley and Schreier 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Floyd et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMultidimensional Systems and Signal Processing
AbbreviationMultidimens. Syst. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)0923-6082
ISSN (online)1573-0824
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture
Information Systems
Signal Processing
Applied Mathematics

Other styles