How to format your references using the Toxicology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.G. Richards, Obituary: Keiiti Aki (1930-2005), Nature. 435 (2005) 1176.
A journal article with 2 authors
O.A. Bayraktar, C.Q. Doe, Combinatorial temporal patterning in progenitors expands neural diversity, Nature. 498 (2013) 449–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Martinón-Torres, T. Rehren, I.C. Freestone, Mullite and the mystery of Hessian wares, Nature. 444 (2006) 437–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J.O. Dowling, I. Topisirovic, T. Alain, M. Bidinosti, B.D. Fonseca, E. Petroulakis, X. Wang, O. Larsson, A. Selvaraj, Y. Liu, S.C. Kozma, G. Thomas, N. Sonenberg, mTORC1-mediated cell proliferation, but not cell growth, controlled by the 4E-BPs, Science. 328 (2010) 1172–1176.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Lakshminarayana, Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
J.A. Spinthourakis, J. Lalor, W. Berg, eds., Cultural Diversity in the Classroom: A European Comparison, VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Han, P. Martínez-Gómez, Y. Miyao, Syntax-Based Pre-reordering for Chinese-to-Japanese Statistical Machine Translation, in: M.R. Costa-jussà, R. Rapp, P. Lambert, K. Eberle, R.E. Banchs, B. Babych (Eds.), Hybrid Approaches to Machine Translation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 77–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Reports.

Blog post
K. Evans, A Year Ago, Scientists Cracked One Of Einstein’s Greatest Mysteries — Now A Bizarre New Form Of Astronomy Is Emerging, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Housing and Urban Development: Lack of Accountability for Computer Equipment Leaves These Assets Vulnerable to Loss or Misappropriation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
I. Coulibaly, Influence of Gender and Age on the Performance of a PBIS program: Quantitative Analysis of Secondary Data from a Midwestern Suburban Public Middle School, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, In Comeback From Injury, Stephens Falls Short Against Another American, New York Times. (2017) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Reports
AbbreviationToxicol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-7500
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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