How to format your references using the Toxicology Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Malakoff, ECONOMICS: “To Your Health” Is More Than a Toast to Economists, Science. 289 (2000) 1275.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Destexhe, D. Contreras, Neuronal computations with stochastic network states, Science. 314 (2006) 85–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Qian, E. Winfree, J. Bruck, Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades, Nature. 475 (2011) 368–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Zhu, H.-C. Jiang, Y. Qi, C. Tian, Z.-Y. Weng, Strong correlation induced charge localization in antiferromagnets, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.V. Vaseghi, Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
H. Bustince, J. Fernandez, R. Mesiar, T. Calvo, eds., Aggregation Functions in Theory and in Practise: Proceedings of the 7th International Summer School on Aggregation Operators at the Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain, July 16-20, 2013, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Eschauzier, P. de Voogt, H.-J. Brauch, F.T. Lange, Polyfluorinated Chemicals in European Surface Waters, Ground- and Drinking Waters, in: T.P. Knepper, F.T. Lange (Eds.), Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 73–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology Reports.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Researchers Develop Mini Rockets To Combat Chemical And Biological Weapons, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Limited English Proficiency: A Growing and Costly Educational Challenge Facing Many School Districts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Iniguez, The Latino immigrant families and involvement with child welfare system: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, False Rumors Are Flying About Insurance Claims, New York Times. (2017) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology Reports
AbbreviationToxicol. Rep.
ISSN (print)2214-7500
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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