How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz, D., 2009. World view: A tale of two sciences. Nature 462, 566.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stoneburner, R.L., Low-Beer, D., 2004. Population-level HIV declines and behavioral risk avoidance in Uganda. Science 304, 714–718.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holmberg, V.C., Panthani, M.G., Korgel, B.A., 2009. Phase transitions, melting dynamics, and solid-state diffusion in a nano test tube. Science 326, 405–407.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Parimi, P.V., Lu, W.T., Vodo, P., Sridhar, S., 2003. Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction. Nature 426, 404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonk, C.J., 2011. The World is Open. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA.
An edited book
Meyvaert, H., 2016. High-Ratio Voltage Conversion in CMOS for Efficient Mains-Connected Standby, Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo, C.-H., Hung, C.-H., 2015. Genetics and Epigenetic Regulation in Allergic Diseases, in: Tao, A., Raz, E. (Eds.), Allergy Bioinformatics, Translational Bioinformatics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Arctic Sea Ice Has Just Set Another Record Low For June [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. National Airspace System: Persistent Problems in FAA’s New Navigation System Highlight Need for Periodic Reevaluation (No. RCED/AIMD-00-130). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Knight, M., 2012. Technological Advancement in Conflict Assessment: A Case Study of the Fund for Peace’s Universal Network of Local Knowledge in Liberia (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2003. In the East Village, an Unusual Bid to Fix Up a Firehouse . . . New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sarewitz, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Sarewitz, 2009; Stoneburner and Low-Beer, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stoneburner and Low-Beer, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Parimi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles