How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geballe, T.H., 2001. Superconductivity. Super boron. Science 293, 223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ginneken, V.J., van den Thillart, G.E., 2000. Eel fat stores are enough to reach the Sargasso. Nature 403, 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yao, M.-C., Fuller, P., Xi, X., 2003. Programmed DNA deletion as an RNA-guided system of genome defense. Science 300, 1581–1584.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mizuno, D., Tardin, C., Schmidt, C.F., Mackintosh, F.C., 2007. Nonequilibrium mechanics of active cytoskeletal networks. Science 315, 370–373.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heimann, R.B., 2010. Classic and Advanced Ceramics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Farooqui, A.A., 2007. Glycerophospholipids in the Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, W., Huang, L.Y., Wang, R.Z., Sun, J.J., Wang, F.R., Liu, C.X., Zhou, L., Zhang, J.H., 2008. Time course of oxyhemoglobin induces apoptosis in mice brain cells in vivo, in: Kırış, T., Zhang, John H. (Eds.), Cerebral Vasospasm: New Strategies in Research and Treatment, Acta Neurochirurgica Supplementum. Springer, Vienna, pp. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. White Shark Populations Are Growing. Here’s Why That’s Good News [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Time Is Running Out for Federal Agencies to Prepare for the New Millennium (No. T-AIMD-97-129). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishnan, R., 2014. Generalized Conditional Matching Algorithm for Ordered and Unordered Sets (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, J., 2016. The Joys of Binge-Watching. New York Times BR10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geballe, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Geballe, 2001; van Ginneken and van den Thillart, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ginneken and van den Thillart, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Mizuno et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles