How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson, D., 2002. Anil Agarwal (1947-2002). Nature 415, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubincam, D.P., Paddack, S.J., 2007. Planetary science. As tiny worlds turn. Science 316, 211–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alston, J.M., Beddow, J.M., Pardey, P.G., 2009. Agriculture. Agricultural research, productivity, and food prices in the long run. Science 325, 1209–1210.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bilde, T., Foged, A., Schilling, N., Arnqvist, G., 2009. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness. Science 324, 1705–1706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hickey, R., 2013. A Dictionary of Varieties of English. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.
An edited book
Guger, C., Allison, B.Z., Edlinger, G. (Eds.), 2013. Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, P., Xu, J., Lin, Z., Xu, D., Mao, B., Liu, P., 2015. A Practical Approach for Adaptive Data Structure Layout Randomization, in: Pernul, G., Y A Ryan, P., Weippl, E. (Eds.), Computer Security -- ESORICS 2015: 20th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Vienna, Austria, September 21-25, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Rings Discovered Around Minor Planet Chiron [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Medicaid Section 1115 Waivers: Flexible Approach to Approving Demonstrations Could Increase Federal Costs (No. HEHS-96-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perfitt, T., 2009. Megaphone: Fault tolerant, scalable, and trustworthy peer-to-peer microblogging (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2012. At the Gym Site, Food For Fitness Lovers. New York Times NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dickson, 2002; Rubincam and Paddack, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rubincam and Paddack, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Bilde et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles