How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, K., 2015. MICROBIOLOGY. Beyond known methanogens. Science 350, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boltasseva, A., Atwater, H.A., 2011. Materials science. Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials. Science 331, 290–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Balachandran, S., Thomas, E., Barber, G.N., 2004. A FADD-dependent innate immune mechanism in mammalian cells. Nature 432, 401–405.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, B.J., Tersoff, J., Kodambaka, S., Reuter, M.C., Stach, E.A., Ross, F.M., 2008. Kinetics of individual nucleation events observed in nanoscale vapor-liquid-solid growth. Science 322, 1070–1073.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tewari, A., 2011. Advanced Control of Aircraft, Spacecraft and Rockets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Guzmán, C.A., Feuerstein, G.Z. (Eds.), 2009. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Liang, Z., Liu, W., 2015. A Study on the Cultivation of Danshen, in: Yan, X. (Ed.), Dan Shen (Salvia Miltiorrhiza) in Medicine: Volume 1. Biology and Chemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 49–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Solve Decades-Old Lunar Mystery [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Medium Range System Components Do Not Fit (No. NSIAD-91-2). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monosky, K.A., 2010. Perceived effectiveness and utility of various EMS credentials (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017. 21 Killed in Series of Car Bomb Blasts in Syria’s Capital. New York Times A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boltasseva and Atwater, 2011; Lloyd, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boltasseva and Atwater, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles