How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., 2003. Ministers back gene-crop advisers. Nature 421, 775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gunanathan, C., Milstein, D., 2013. Applications of acceptorless dehydrogenation and related transformations in chemical synthesis. Science 341, 1229712.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plotkin, J.B., Dushoff, J., Fraser, H.B., 2004. Detecting selection using a single genome sequence of M. tuberculosis and P. falciparum. Nature 428, 942–945.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lecossier, D., Bouchonnet, F., Clavel, F., Hance, A.J., 2003. Hypermutation of HIV-1 DNA in the absence of the Vif protein. Science 300, 1112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akiba, K.-Y., 2011. Organo Main Group Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nenajdenko, V. (Ed.), 2014. Fluorine in Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 2: 6-Membered Heterocycles. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Habib, M.R., Morris, D.L., 2016. Local and Regional Hyperthermia, in: Aigner, K.R., Stephens, F.O. (Eds.), Induction Chemotherapy: Systemic and Locoregional. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Ancient Bird Fossils Reveal What The Arctic May Have Looked Like 90 Million Years Ago [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts (No. GAO-07-442T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munoz, S., 2017. Mental Health Care for Foreign Born Latinos: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2016. In a Valley of Invention. New York Times WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2003; Gunanathan and Milstein, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gunanathan and Milstein, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Lecossier et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles