How to format your references using the Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spoor, F., 2015. Palaeoanthropology: The middle Pliocene gets crowded. Nature 521, 432–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Qian, H., Ricklefs, R.E., 2000. Large-scale processes and the Asian bias in species diversity of temperate plants. Nature 407, 180–182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ballester, G.E., Sing, D.K., Herbert, F., 2007. The signature of hot hydrogen in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Nature 445, 511–514.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sinnarajah, S., Dessauer, C.W., Srikumar, D., Chen, J., Yuen, J., Yilma, S., Dennis, J.C., Morrison, E.E., Vodyanoy, V., Kehrl, J.H., 2001. RGS2 regulates signal transduction in olfactory neurons by attenuating activation of adenylyl cyclase III. Nature 409, 1051–1055.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mariño, P.P., 2016. Optimization of Computer Networks - Modeling and Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
West, B.J., 2014. Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders, Computational Social Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, Y., Ariga, D., Fan, Q., Kashiwabara, T., 2015. Systematics of Distributions of Various Elements Between Ferromanganese Oxides and Seawater from Natural Observation, Thermodynamics, and Structures, in: Ishibashi, J.-I., Okino, K., Sunamura, M. (Eds.), Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 39–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Can Handshake Strength Really Predict Your Mortality Risk? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Indian Education in the Public School System Needs More Direction from the Congress (No. HRD-76-172). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chamberlin, A.A., 2015. Academic-related factors and emotional eating in adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Appetite for Racing, And for Winning. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spoor, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Qian and Ricklefs, 2000; Spoor, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Qian and Ricklefs, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sinnarajah et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicology
ISSN (print)0300-483X

Other styles