How to format your references using the Toxicological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2002) Career prospects in Europe. Nature, 419, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall, A. and Stouffer, R.J. (2001) An abrupt climate event in a coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation without external forcing. Nature, 409, 171–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pasham, D.R. et al. (2014) A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82. Nature, 513, 74–76.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Bo, S. et al. (2009) The Gamburtsev mountains and the origin and early evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Nature, 459, 690–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bisen, P.S. and Raghuvanshi, R. (2013) Emerging Epidemics John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Carreiro, M.M. et al. eds. (2008) Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspectives Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Nellis, A. et al. (2016) Assisted Coverage Closure. In, Rayadurgam,S. and Tkachuk,O. (eds), NASA Formal Methods: 8th International Symposium, NFM 2016, Minneapolis, MN, USA, June 7-9, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological Sciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014) Complete Skeleton of Prehistoric Teenaged Girl Found in the Yucatan. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Long-Range Planning Can Improve the Efficiency of Agricultural Research and Development U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greenfield Pace, J.A. (2016) The influence of accountability and commitment on team performance of airline flight crews.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017) The Skyjacker’s Tale. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Hall and Stouffer, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hall and Stouffer, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bo et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological Sciences
AbbreviationToxicol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1096-6080
ISSN (online)1096-0929

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