How to format your references using the Toxicological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kling, J. (2000) The flaw is human. Nature, 406, 941.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugimoto, N. and Nagaosa, N. (2012) Spin-orbit echo. Science, 336, 1413–1416.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vinther, J. et al. (2008) Machaeridians are Palaeozoic armoured annelids. Nature, 451, 185–188.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Larkum, M.E. et al. (2009) Synaptic integration in tuft dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons: a new unifying principle. Science, 325, 756–760.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kappe, C.O. et al. (2012) Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Labarta, J. et al. eds. (2008) High-Performance Computing: 6th International Symposium, ISHPC 2005, Nara, Japan, September 7-9, 2005, First International Workshop on Advanced Low Power Systems, ALPS 2006, Revised Selected Papers Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Barreto, P.S. et al. (2008) Network Planning and Adaptive Routing for Multimedia Traffic. In, Ma,Y. et al. (eds), Challenges for Next Generation Network Operations and Service Management: 11th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium, APNOMS 2008, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological Sciences.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017) One Of The World’s Rarest And Most Elusive Whales Has Been Captured On Camera For The First Time. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Tax System Modernization: IRS’ Efforts to Improve Taxpayer Correspondence U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, A.P. (2008) An efficient algorithm for calculating fluctuation field and simulating the thermal magnetic aftereffect.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2010) A Cut Above. New York Times, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kling, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kling, 2000; Sugimoto and Nagaosa, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sugimoto and Nagaosa, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Larkum et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological Sciences
AbbreviationToxicol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1096-6080
ISSN (online)1096-0929

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