How to format your references using the Toxicological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kerr, R.A. (2000) GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA MEETING: Geologists Pursue Solar System’s Oldest Relics. Science, 290, 2239–2242.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steiner, G. and Salvini-Plawen, L. (2001) Acaenoplax--polychaete or mollusc? Nature, 414, 601–2; discussion 602.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pan, X. et al. (2004) A distance of 133-137 parsecs to the Pleiades star cluster. Nature, 427, 326–328.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Min, J.-H. et al. (2002) Structure of an HIF-1alpha -pVHL complex: hydroxyproline recognition in signaling. Science, 296, 1886–1889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willis, D.O. (2013) Business Basics for Dentists John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
van Latesteijn, H. and Andeweg, K. eds. (2011) The TransForum Model: Transforming Agro Innovation Toward Sustainable Development Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Cameron, D. and Shaw, S. (2016) Conclusions. In, Shaw,S. (ed), Gender, Power and Political Speech: Women and Language in the 2015 UK General Election. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 113–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015) Surprise Finding Suggests Diabetes Drug Could Release Rather Than Prevent Blood Sugar. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Airfield Pavement: Keeping Nation’s Runways in Good Condition Could Require Substantially Higher Spending U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lyzlov, A. (2017) In Vivo Efficacy of Lanthanum Carbonate on Intestinal Phosphorus Absorption in Stage Five Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. (2015) Colombia Close to a Peace Accord With Rebels. New York Times, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kerr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kerr, 2000; Steiner and Salvini-Plawen, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steiner and Salvini-Plawen, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Min et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological Sciences
AbbreviationToxicol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1096-6080
ISSN (online)1096-0929

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