How to format your references using the Toxicological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Toxicological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003) Rental disagreements. Nature, 425, 103.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kmita, M. and Duboule, D. (2003) Organizing axes in time and space; 25 years of colinear tinkering. Science, 301, 331–333.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holland, G. et al. (2009) Meteorite Kr in Earth’s mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere. Science, 326, 1522–1525.
A journal article with 3 or more authors
Ravasio, D. et al. (2014) An indirect assay for volatile compound production in yeast strains. Sci. Rep., 4, 3707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heines, M.H. (2014) First to File John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sourisseau, J.-M. ed. (2015) Family Farming and the Worlds to Come Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Huber, S.G. and Muijs, D. (2010) School Leadership Effectiveness: The Growing Insight in the Importance of School Leadership for the Quality and Development of Schools and Their Pupils. In, Huber,S. (ed), School Leadership - International Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Toxicological Sciences.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016) 4 Things You Can Literally Learn While You Sleep. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) National Transportation System: Options and Analytical Tools to Strengthen DOT’s Approach to Supporting Communities’ Access to the System U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muenyong-Zinner, S. (2017) Care First Wound Healing Center a Business Plan.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2008) Laws Seek to Counter Clothing-Bin Fraud. New York Times, LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003; Kmita and Duboule, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kmita and Duboule, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Ravasio et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleToxicological Sciences
AbbreviationToxicol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1096-6080
ISSN (online)1096-0929

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