How to format your references using the Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
GROSJEAN, M. (2001), Mid-Holocene climate in the south-central Andes: humid or dry? Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, p. 2391.
A journal article with 2 authors
KAWAGUCHI, K. & S. ISHIWATA (2001), Nucleotide-dependent single- to double-headed binding of kinesin. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291, pp. 667–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
PLATA, G., C.S. HENRY & D. VITKUP (2015), Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria. Nature 517, pp. 369–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
AFYON, S., F. KRUMEICH, C. MENSING, A. BORGSCHULTE & R. NESPER (2014), New high capacity cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries: vanadate-borate glasses. Scientific reports 4, p. 7113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MCBEE, J. (2009), Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1. Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
MATYÁŠ, R. (2013), Primary Explosives. J. Pachman, ed. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
KITRAKI, E. (2014), BPA Effects In Vivo: Evidence from Animal Studies. In: T. Eliades and G. Eliades, eds., Plastics in Dentistry and Estrogenicity: A Guide to Safe Practice. pp. 89–114. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie.

Blog post
HAMILTON, K. (2015), Beautiful Image of Piqiang Fault Lines Wins NASA Photo Tournament. IFLScience. Available at: <>. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1988), Air Safety: FAA’s Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
SARACHANA, T. (2009), Investigation of post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by miRNA expression profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
NOVICK, S.M. (2015), When the Brew Is as Crucial as the Bean. New York Times p. LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grosjean 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Grosjean 2001; Kawaguchi & Ishiwata 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kawaguchi & Ishiwata 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Afyon et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
AbbreviationTijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr.
ISSN (online)1467-9663
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development

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