How to format your references using the Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
GREENBERG, D.L. (2007), Comment on ‘Detecting awareness in the vegetative state’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 315, pp. 1221; author reply 1221.
A journal article with 2 authors
KESSLER, A. & I.T. BALDWIN (2001), Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science (New York, N.Y.) 291, pp. 2141–2144.
A journal article with 3 authors
HÄGGLUND, C., M. GRÄTZEL & B. KASEMO (2003), Comment on ‘efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2’ (II). Science (New York, N.Y.) 301, pp. 1673; discussion 1673.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
ZOUNI, A., H.T. WITT, J. KERN, P. FROMME, N. KRAUSS, W. SAENGER & P. ORTH (2001), Crystal structure of photosystem II from Synechococcus elongatus at 3.8 A resolution. Nature 409, pp. 739–743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DUHON, T. (2012), How the Trading Floor Really Works. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: Chichester, West Sussex, UK.
An edited book
MILLER, T.L., ed. (2016), Endurance Sports Medicine: A Clinical Guide. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
PINCELLI, C. & A. MARCONI (2013), Keratinocyte Stem Cells: Biology and Clinical Applications. In: H. Baharvand and N. Aghdami, eds., Regenerative Medicine and Cell Therapy. pp. 57–64. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie.

Blog post
ANDREWS, R. (2017), Incoming Secretary Of Energy Rick Perry Has No Idea What The Job Actually Is. IFLScience. Available at: <>. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1976), Review of the Health Facilities Surveyor Training Program Funded by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
BRITT, C.A. (2012), Dying in America: A historical analysis of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
GRYNBAUM, M.M. & E. STEEL (2016), After Ailes’s Departure, a Stony Silence at Fox. New York Times p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Greenberg 2007; Kessler & Baldwin 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kessler & Baldwin 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Zouni et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleTijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
AbbreviationTijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr.
ISSN (online)1467-9663
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development

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