How to format your references using the Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
CHURCH, J.A. (2007), Oceans. A change in circulation? Science (New York, N.Y.) 317, pp. 908–909.
A journal article with 2 authors
EVANS, W.E. & M.V. RELLING (2004), Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics. Nature 429, pp. 464–468.
A journal article with 3 authors
DOUGLAS, S.M., I. BACHELET & G.M. CHURCH (2012), A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science (New York, N.Y.) 335, pp. 831–834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
MARIÓN, R.M., K. STRATI, H. LI, M. MURGA, R. BLANCO, S. ORTEGA, O. FERNANDEZ-CAPETILLO, M. SERRANO & M.A. BLASCO (2009), A p53-mediated DNA damage response limits reprogramming to ensure iPS cell genomic integrity. Nature 460, pp. 1149–1153.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DODSON, B., P.C. HAMMETT & R. KLERX (2014), Probabilistic Design for Optimization and Robustness for Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK.
An edited book
SNYDER, L., ed. (2007), Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Ethics, the Patient, and the Physician. Humana Press: Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
TAYARAN, E. & A. SCHIFFAUEROVA (2012), The Role of Internal and External Sources of Knowledge in the Product Lifecycle in Biotechnology Sector. In: L. Rivest, A. Bouras, and B. Louhichi, eds., Product Lifecycle Management. Towards Knowledge-Rich Enterprises: IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2012, Montreal, QC, Canada, July 9-11, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. pp. 46–57. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie.

Blog post
ANDREW, E. (2014), How To Build A Smartphone Microscope Stand for $10. IFLScience. Available at: <>. Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1979), Student Loan Insurance Fund. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
FOSTER, H.C. (2017), The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KENIGSBERG, B. (2016), Review: ‘Keeping Up With the Joneses’ Might Not Be Worth It. New York Times p. C9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Church 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Church 2007; Evans & Relling 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans & Relling 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Marión et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleTijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
AbbreviationTijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr.
ISSN (online)1467-9663
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development

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