How to format your references using the Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DICKSON, D. (2000), Unesco backs ‘science for debt’ plan. Nature 404, p. 911.
A journal article with 2 authors
BAELL, J. & M.A. WALTERS (2014), Chemistry: Chemical con artists foil drug discovery. Nature 513, pp. 481–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
REGAN, C.K., S.L. CRAIG & J.I. BRAUMAN (2002), Steric effects and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295, pp. 2245–2247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
PAN, Y., R.A. BIRDSEY, J. FANG, R. HOUGHTON, P.E. KAUPPI, W.A. KURZ, O.L. PHILLIPS, A. SHVIDENKO, S.L. LEWIS, J.G. CANADELL, P. CIAIS, R.B. JACKSON, S.W. PACALA, A.D. MCGUIRE, S. PIAO, A. RAUTIAINEN, S. SITCH & D. HAYES (2011), A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333, pp. 988–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
VIGNES, A. (2013), Extractive Metallurgy 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
MIELE, V. & M. TRINCI, eds. (2015), Imaging Trauma and Polytrauma in Pediatric Patients. Springer International Publishing: Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
GARBETT, D. (2014), Lessons on the Hoof: Learning About Teacher Education Through Horse-Riding. In: A. Ovens and T. Fletcher, eds., Self-Study in Physical Education Teacher Education: Exploring the interplay of practice and scholarship. Self-Study of Teaching and Teacher Education Practices. pp. 63–73. Springer International Publishing: Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie.

Blog post
HALE, T. (2017), Pod Escapes From Facility In Town Infamous For Bloody Dolphin Slaughters. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE (1978), Relevance of GAO Report, ‘Improvements Needed in DOE’s Efforts To Develop a Financial Reporting System’. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
GUO, Z. (2008), Experimental Analysis of Polymer Nanocomposite Foaming Using Carbon Dioxide. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
KISHKOVSKY, S. (2000), Svyatoslav Fyodorov, 72, Eye Surgery Pioneer. New York Times p. 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dickson 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Baell & Walters 2014; Dickson 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baell & Walters 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Pan et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleTijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
AbbreviationTijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr.
ISSN (online)1467-9663
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles