How to format your references using the Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christianson DW. Chemistry. Roots of biosynthetic diversity. Science. 2007 Apr 6;316(5821):60–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwartz MW, Porte D Jr. Diabetes, obesity, and the brain. Science. 2005 Jan 21;307(5708):375–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ball LT, Lloyd-Jones GC, Russell CA. Gold-catalyzed direct arylation. Science. 2012 Sep 28;337(6102):1644–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao K, Gu R, Wang L, Xiao P, Chen Y-H, Liang J, et al. Voluntary pressing and releasing actions induce different senses of time: evidence from event-related brain responses. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 13;4:6047.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williamson T. Identity and Discrimination. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Bauwens L, Pohlmeier W, Veredas D, editors. High Frequency Financial Econometrics: Recent Developments. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2008. VI, 312 p. (Studies in Empirical Economics).
A chapter in an edited book
Iida T, Ito S, Tokonami S, Kojima C. Nano-optomechanics by Tailored Light Fields Under Fluctuations. In: Ohtsu M, Yatsui T, editors. Progress in Nanophotonics 3. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 167–202. (Nano-Optics and Nanophotonics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening.

Blog post
Hale T. Developing A Warped Sense Of Humor Could Be An Early Sign Of Dementia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Sep. Report No.: T-AIMD-97-173.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz H. The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Arson Suspected In Synagogue Fire. New York Times. 2005 May 11;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleTidsskrift for Den norske legeforening
AbbreviationTidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
ISSN (print)0029-2001
ISSN (online)0807-7096
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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