How to format your references using the Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marec F. Developmental genetics: Female silkworms have the sex factor. Nature. 2014 May 29;509(7502):570–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos AAN, Bradley RA. Environment. Energy and technology policies for managing carbon risk. Science. 2009 Aug 21;325(5943):949–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell CT, Parker SC, Starr DE. The effect of size-dependent nanoparticle energetics on catalyst sintering. Science. 2002 Oct 25;298(5594):811–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klein-Seetharaman J, Oikawa M, Grimshaw SB, Wirmer J, Duchardt E, Ueda T, et al. Long-range interactions within a nonnative protein. Science. 2002 Mar 1;295(5560):1719–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sullivan DM. Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Sun X, Liu A, Chao HC, Bertino E, editors. Cloud Computing and Security: Second International Conference, ICCCS 2016, Nanjing, China, July 29-31, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XX, 636 p. 261 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 10040).
A chapter in an edited book
de Vries MJ, Meijers AWM. Beliefs, Acceptances and Technological Knowledge. In: Vries MJ de, Hansson SO, Meijers AWM, editors. Norms in Technology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 55–65. (Philosophy of Engineering and Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening.

Blog post
Davis J. Should we be Afraid of Asteroids? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Burden Sharing: Allied Protection of Ships in the Persian Gulf in 1987 and 1988. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-90-282BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green SW. The influence of satisfaction among African American males on community college choices [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Rashbaum WK. Facing Critics, City Jails Chief Is Set to Resign. New York Times. 2017 May 12;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleTidsskrift for Den norske legeforening
AbbreviationTidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
ISSN (print)0029-2001
ISSN (online)0807-7096
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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