How to format your references using the Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Abdool Karim SS. Stigma impedes AIDS prevention. Nature 2011;474:29–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Boone C, Andrews BJ. HUMAN GENOME. The indispensable genome. Science 2015;350:1028–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Poulsen CJ, Ehlers TA, Insel N. Onset of convective rainfall during gradual late Miocene rise of the central Andes. Science 2010;328:490–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Díaz S, Pascual U, Stenseke M, Martín-López B, Watson RT, Molnár Z, et al. Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science 2018;359:270–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Golio M. Engineering Your Retirement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
[1]
Wobcke W, Zhang M, editors. AI 2008: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 21st Australasian Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Auckland, New Zealand, December 1-5, 2008. Proceedings. vol. 5360. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Pinheiro PO, Lin T-Y, Collobert R, Dollár P. Learning to Refine Object Segments. In: Leibe B, Matas J, Sebe N, Welling M, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2016: 14th European Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 11–14, 2016, Proceedings, Part I, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
Hamilton K. How Old Is Our Moon? IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/space/how-old-is-our-moon/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Is Enhancing Its Oversight of Air Carrier Efforts to Identify Passengers on the No Fly and Selectee Lists, but Expects Ultimate Solution to Be Implementation of Secure Flight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Chow BJ. Forming Infrastructural Materials by Mechanical Compaction of Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulants. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Schmitt E, Gordon MR, Sengupta S. U.S. Ties Russia to Strike on U.N. Convoy in Syria. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering
AbbreviationEngineering (Beijing)
ISSN (print)2095-8099
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
General Computer Science
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
General Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Materials Science (miscellaneous)

Other styles