How to format your references using the Thorax citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thorax. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falkowski PG. Evolution. Tracing oxygen’s imprint on earth’s metabolic evolution. Science 2006;311:1724–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piskorowski R, Aldrich RW. Calcium activation of BK(Ca) potassium channels lacking the calcium bowl and RCK domains. Nature 2002;420:499–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorsen T, Maerkl SJ, Quake SR. Microfluidic large-scale integration. Science 2002;298:580–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Horikawa K, Ishimatsu K, Yoshimoto E, et al. Noise-resistant and synchronized oscillation of the segmentation clock. Nature 2006;441:719–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill TH. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
Kovačević B. Adaptive Digital Filters. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson HY, Sağlam Ü. Smoothing and Regularization for Mixed-Integer Second-Order Cone Programming with Applications in Portfolio Optimization. In: Zuluaga LF, Terlaky T, eds. Modeling and Optimization: Theory and Applications: Selected Contributions from the MOPTA 2012 Conference. New York, NY: : Springer 2013. 87–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thorax.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Search For ET Has Been Going On For Years: So What Do We Know So Far? IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in DOT’s Hazardous Materials Rail Safety Program. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farrugia TJ. Abundance, habitat use and movement patterns of the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatus productus) in a restored Southern California estuary. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G. Since 1956, a Sensitive Guy. New York Times. 2012;:ST2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThorax
ISSN (print)0040-6376
ISSN (online)1468-3296
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles