How to format your references using the Thorax citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thorax. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victor DG. Climate change: Embed the social sciences in climate policy. Nature 2015;520:27–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lindvall O, Hyun I. Medical innovation versus stem cell tourism. Science 2009;324:1664–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Bollinger R. Public health vaccination policies for containing an anthrax outbreak. Nature 2004;432:901–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tegze M, Faigel G, Marchesini S, et al. Imaging light atoms by X-ray holography. Nature 2000;407:38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown SR, Gregory WM, Twelves C, et al. A Practical Guide to Designing Phase II Trials in Oncology. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2014.
An edited book
Haigh JD. The Sun, Solar Analogs and the Climate: Saas-Fee Advanced Course 34 2004 Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Rivlin RS. An Introduction to Non-Linear Continuum Mechanics. In: Rilvil RS, ed. Non-linear Continuum Theories in Mechanics and Physics and their Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011. 151–309.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thorax.

Blog post
Andrews R. What Would Happen If Every Single Volcano In The World Erupted At Once? IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Congressional Relations Activities, 1950-1983: Smith Blair, Charles E. Eckert, Martin J. Fitzgerald, and L. Fred Thompson. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domec BS. Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Corkery M. Hedge Fund Economists See Solution to Island’s Debt Crisis. New York Times. 2015;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThorax
ISSN (print)0040-6376
ISSN (online)1468-3296
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles