How to format your references using the Thorax citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thorax. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rakic P. Neuroscience. No more cortical neurons for you. Science 2006;313:928–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cho NW, Greenberg RA. DNA repair: Familiar ends with alternative endings. Nature 2015;518:174–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu LQ, Cheley S, Bayley H. Capture of a single molecule in a nanocavity. Science 2001;291:636–40.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Quezada JC, Saussine G, Breul P, et al. Predicting the settlement of coarse granular materials under vertical loading. Sci Rep 2014;4:5707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peat J, Elliott E, Baur L, et al. Scientific Writing Easy when you know how. London, WC: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2002.
An edited book
Wittinghofer A, editor. Ras Superfamily Small G Proteins: Biology and Mechanisms 1: General Features, Signaling. Vienna: : Springer 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Bensaid H, Caferra R, Peltier N. I-Terms in Ordered Resolution and Superposition Calculi: Retrieving Lost Completeness. In: Autexier S, Calmet J, Delahaye D, et al., eds. Intelligent Computer Mathematics: 10th International Conference, AISC 2010, 17th Symposium, Calculemus 2010, and 9th International Conference, MKM 2010, Paris, France, July 5-10, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010. 19–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thorax.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Interstellar Round Trip Could Return Samples From Earth-Like Exoplanet In 300 Years. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Overhead Costs: Unallowable Costs Charged by Rockwell Corporation, Rocketdyne Division. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelleher A. Gendered Intent to Turnover Resulting from Workplace Bullying in Nursing and Medical Fields. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robert Kelly; Robert Kelly is a poet, fiction writer whose most recent book is ’ ’A Transparent Tree, ’ ’ a collection of short fiction. He teaches at the Milton Avery Graduate School of the Arts, et al. ORDINARY SPLENDORS. New York Times. 1986;:725.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThorax
ISSN (print)0040-6376
ISSN (online)1468-3296
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles