How to format your references using the Thorax citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thorax. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baruch J. Practical science has a global reach and appeal. Nature 2014;507:141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson RI, Nicoll RA. Endocannabinoid signaling in the brain. Science 2002;296:678–82.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mehlmann LM, Jones TLZ, Jaffe LA. Meiotic arrest in the mouse follicle maintained by a Gs protein in the oocyte. Science 2002;297:1343–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cox PM, Harris PP, Huntingford C, et al. Increasing risk of Amazonian drought due to decreasing aerosol pollution. Nature 2008;453:212–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Best P. Implementing Value at Risk. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2005.
An edited book
Giaconi JA, Law SK, Coleman AL, et al., editors. Pearls of Glaucoma Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Palmaz S, Cuadros M, Etchegoyhen T. Statistically-Guided Controlled Language Authoring. In: Davis B, Pace GJ, Wyner A, eds. Controlled Natural Language: 5th International Workshop, CNL 2016, Aberdeen, UK, July 25-27, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thorax.

Blog post
Hale T. Watch This Kid Perfectly Sum Up All The Evidence That Vaccinations Cause Autism. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: NASA Should Better Inform Researchers about How to Appeal Dissemination Decisions. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson BR. A correlational study: Parental involvement to student achievement in public education. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Victory for Wheeler, Even in a Loss. New York Times. 2017;:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThorax
ISSN (print)0040-6376
ISSN (online)1468-3296
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles