How to format your references using the Thin-Walled Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin-Walled Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Abbott, Danish biotech centre faces axe, Nature. 422 (2003) 105.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Li, Y. Yang, A novel perspective on seed yield of broad bean (Vicia faba L.): differences resulting from pod characteristics, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6859.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z. Yang, S. Watanabe, T. Kato, The irradiation effect of a simultaneous laser and electron dual-beam on void formation, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1201.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Sinn, B. Glorieux, L. Hennet, A. Alatas, M. Hu, E.E. Alp, F.J. Bermejo, D.L. Price, M.-L. Saboungi, Microscopic dynamics of liquid aluminum oxide, Science. 299 (2003) 2047–2049.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Hermans, B. Lentz, Equilibria and Kinetics of Biological Macromolecules, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
I.L. Rubin, J. Merrick, D.E. Greydanus, D.R. Patel, eds., Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities across the Lifespan, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Leite, A. Silva, E. Henriques, On the Influence of Material Selection Decisions on Second Order Cost Factors, in: E. Henriques, P. Pecas, A. Silva (Eds.), Technology and Manufacturing Process Selection: The Product Life Cycle Perspective, Springer, London, 2014: pp. 59–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin-Walled Structures.

Blog post
K. Evans, Adélie Penguins Have An Appetite For Jellyfish With Giant Gonads, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.C. Wulfsberg, Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, The Neediest Cases; Chasing Her Dream Through Education, New York Times. (1995) 126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin-Walled Structures
AbbreviationThin-Walled Struct.
ISSN (print)0263-8231
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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