How to format your references using the Thin-Walled Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin-Walled Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.A. Huber, MICROBIAL ECOLOGY. Making methane down deep, Science. 349 (2015) 376–377.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Farrow, V. Vedral, Scale-estimation of quantum coherent energy transport in multiple-minima systems, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5520.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Dicke, J.J.A. van Loon, P.W. de Jong, Ecology. Ecogenomics benefits community ecology, Science. 305 (2004) 618–619.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Rapino, S. Delaunay, F. Rambow, Z. Zhou, L. Tharun, P. De Tullio, O. Sin, K. Shostak, S. Schmitz, J. Piepers, B. Ghesquière, L. Karim, B. Charloteaux, D. Jamart, A. Florin, C. Lambert, A. Rorive, G. Jerusalem, E. Leucci, M. Dewaele, M. Vooijs, S.A. Leidel, M. Georges, M. Voz, B. Peers, R. Büttner, J.-C. Marine, A. Chariot, P. Close, Codon-specific translation reprogramming promotes resistance to targeted therapy, Nature. 558 (2018) 605–609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.H. Richter, Reading the Eighteenth-Century Novel, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
V. Vasiliou, S. Zakhari, H.K. Seitz, J.B. Hoek, eds., Biological Basis of Alcohol-Induced Cancer, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Á. Székely, G. Andrighetto, L.G. Nardin, Social Norms and Extortion Rackets, in: C. Elsenbroich, D. Anzola, N. Gilbert (Eds.), Social Dimensions of Organised Crime: Modelling the Dynamics of Extortion Rackets, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin-Walled Structures.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Is There Life On Mars?, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Activities of the Economic Opportunities Development Corporation of San Antonio and Bexar County, Texas, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.J. Stanford, Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating biosensors, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Shostakovich Is Scaled Down After Protests From Church, New York Times. (2006) E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin-Walled Structures
AbbreviationThin-Walled Struct.
ISSN (print)0263-8231
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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