How to format your references using the Thin-Walled Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Thin-Walled Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Reichhardt, Doubts and uncertainties slow NASA’s schedule, Nature. 405 (2000) 4.
A journal article with 2 authors
V.I. Tikhonov, A.A. Volkov, Separation of water into its ortho and para isomers, Science. 296 (2002) 2363.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Bento, A. Ogawa, R.J. Sommer, Co-option of the hormone-signalling module dafachronic acid-DAF-12 in nematode evolution, Nature. 466 (2010) 494–497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, B. Walker, Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, Nature. 413 (2001) 591–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.-M. Laheurte, C. Ripoll, D. Paret, C. Loussert, UHF RFID Technologies for Identification and Traceability, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
D. Amyot, P. Fonseca i Casas, G. Mussbacher, eds., System Analysis and Modeling: Models and Reusability: 8th International Conference, SAM 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 29-30, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
T. Sato, Y. Kameya, New Advances in Logic-Based Probabilistic Modeling by PRISM, in: L.D. Raedt, P. Frasconi, K. Kersting, S. Muggleton (Eds.), Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming: Theory and Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 118–155.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Thin-Walled Structures.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Rare Species Of Deep-Diving Whale Discovered, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Northeast Rail Corridor: Information on Users, Funding Sources, and Expenditures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Fregoso, Through the pipeline: Degree aspirations of African American and Latino males enrolled in California community colleges, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, The Life and Times Of a Young Rock Band, New York Times. (1995) 131.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThin-Walled Structures
AbbreviationThin-Walled Struct.
ISSN (print)0263-8231
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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