How to format your references using the Theriogenology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theriogenology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
West R. Chemistry. Japan bats a triple. Science 2004;305:1724–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jansen VAA, van Baalen M. Altruism through beard chromodynamics. Nature 2006;440:663–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Glaser A, Barak B, Goldston RJ. A zero-knowledge protocol for nuclear warhead verification. Nature 2014;510:497–502.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shinada T, Okamoto S, Kobayashi T, Ohdomari I. Enhancing semiconductor device performance using ordered dopant arrays. Nature 2005;437:1128–31.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard P. Competitive Quality Strategies. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Becchi CM. An Introduction to Relativistic Processes and the Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. 2nd ed. 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Rogers CJ, Colbert LH, Perkins SN, Hursting SD. Calorie Restriction, Exercise, and Colon Cancer Prevention: A Mechanistic Perspective. In: McTiernan A, editor. Physical Activity, Dietary Calorie Restriction, and Cancer, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 69–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theriogenology.

Blog post
Taub B. The Brains Of Amputees Remember Their Lost Limbs For Decades. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. International Aviation: Competition Issues in the U.S.-U.K. Market. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chirwa KU. Encumbered Existence: A Three Movement Work for Jazz Orchestra. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Many Feet Shall Be Shod. New York Times 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheriogenology
ISSN (print)0093-691X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals
Small Animals

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