How to format your references using the Theriogenology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theriogenology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. Science careers. From greener production to carbon trading: sustainable energy careers. Science 2007;315:868–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marcus A, Oransky I. Science publishing: The paper is not sacred. Nature 2011;480:449–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakamura K, Takahashi Y, Fujiwara T. Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal. Sci Rep 2014;4:6523.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang K, Zhao J, Cheng Q, Dong DS, Cui TJ. Broadband and broad-angle low-scattering metasurface based on hybrid optimization algorithm. Sci Rep 2014;4:5935.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu W, Pecht M. IC Component Sockets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Castillo O, Melin P, editors. Fuzzy Logic Augmentation of Nature-Inspired Optimization Metaheuristics: Theory and Applications. vol. 574. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang L, Wu Q, Qin B, Domingo-Ferrer J. Practical Privacy for Value-Added Applications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. In: Xiang Y, Pathan M, Tao X, Wang H, editors. Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 5th International Conference, IDCS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theriogenology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Amazing GIF Shows What It Would Look Like If The Orion Nebula Was Only 4 Light Years Away. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. H.R. 7178, the Research and Development Authorization Estimates Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gelbart O. Integrated hardware/software approaches to software security for embedded systems. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. No 401(k)? California Will Step In for Workers. New York Times 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheriogenology
ISSN (print)0093-691X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals
Small Animals

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