How to format your references using the Theriogenology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Theriogenology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith K. Treatment frontiers. Nature 2010;466:S15-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li M, Izpisua Belmonte JC. Ageing: Genetic rejuvenation of old muscle. Nature 2014;506:304–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schneider T, Bischoff T, Haug GH. Migrations and dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone. Nature 2014;513:45–53.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen XH, Wu T, Wu G, Liu RH, Chen H, Fang DF. Superconductivity at 43 K in SmFeAsO1-xFx. Nature 2008;453:761–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shanmugam R, Chattamvelli R. Statistics for Scientists and Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Graimann B, Pfurtscheller G, Allison B, editors. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-Computer Interaction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Reguero M, Goin F, Hospitaleche CA, Marenssi S, Dutra T. The Terrestrial Biotic Dimension of West Antarctica (WANT). In: Goin F, Acosta Hospitaleche C, Dutra T, Marenssi S, editors. Late Cretaceous/Paleogene West Antarctica Terrestrial Biota and its Intercontinental Affinities, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013, p. 55–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Theriogenology.

Blog post
Hale T. A Russian River Has Suddenly Turned Blood Red. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayner SW. Transformational leadership and organizational change during agile and devops initiatives. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wingfield N, de la MERCED MJ. Amazon to Buy Whole Foods For $13 Billion. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleTheriogenology
ISSN (print)0093-691X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Food Animals
Small Animals

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